The “QUIET LION TOUR” embraces the story of the Burma-Thailand Railway and the experiences of POWs, particularly Australians, in the course of those terrible times.

The Tour is conducted by the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association whose objective is “To perpetuate the memory of the privations and sacrifices of Allied Military personnel and the selfless dedication of the medical personnel during the construction of the Burma Thailand Railway in World War 11 by informing current and future generations through all forms of education and particularly with Quiet Lion Tours featuring “Hellfire Pass and Anzac Day”.

The Anzac Day tradition is at the core of the Quiet Lion Tours and it is pertinent to ask “What is Anzac Day? Anzac Day, 25 April, is one of Australia’s most important national occasions. It marks the anniversary of the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War.

ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The soldiers in those forces quickly became known as Anzacs, and the pride they took in that name endures to this day.

Why is this day special to Australians?

When war broke out in 1914 Australia had been a federated nation for only 13 years, and its government was eager to establish a reputation among the nations of the world. When Britain declared war in August 1914 Australia was automatically placed on the side of the Commonwealth. In 1915 Australian and New Zealand soldiers formed part of the expedition that set out to capture the Gallipoli peninsula in order to open the Dardanelles to the allied navies. The ultimate objective was to capture Constantinople (now Istanbul), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and an ally of Germany.

The Australian and New Zealand forces landed on Gallipoli on 25 April, meeting fierce resistance from the Ottoman Turkish defenders. What had been planned as a bold stroke to knock Turkey out of the war quickly became a stalemate, and the campaign dragged on for eight months. At the end of 1915 the allied forces were evacuated from the peninsula, with both sides having suffered heavy casualties and endured great hardships. More than 8,000 Australian soldiers had died in the campaign. Gallipoli had a profound impact on Australians at home, and 25 April soon became the day on which Australians remembered the sacrifice of those who died in the war.

Although the Gallipoli campaign failed in its military objectives, the actions of Australian and New Zealand forces during the campaign left a powerful legacy. What became known as the “Anzac legend” became an important part of the identity of both nations, shaping the ways in which they viewed both their past and their future.

In 1916 the first Anzac Day commemorations were held on 25 April. The day was marked by a wide variety of ceremonies and services across Australia, a march through London, and a sports day in the Australian camp in Egypt. In London more than 2,000 Australian and New Zealand troops marched through the streets; a London newspaper headline dubbed them “the knights of Gallipoli”. A march was held all over Australia; in the Sydney march convoys of cars carried soldiers wounded on Gallipoli and their nurses. For the remaining years of the war Anzac Day was used as an occasion for patriotic rallies and recruiting campaigns, and parades of serving members of the AIF were held in most cities.

During the 1920s Anzac Day became established as a national day of commemoration for the more than 60,000 Australians who had died during the war. In 1927, for the first time, every state observed some form of public holiday on Anzac Day. By the mid-1930s all the rituals we now associate with the day – dawn vigils, marches, memorial services, reunions, two-up games – were firmly established as part of Anzac Day culture.

Later, Anzac Day also served to commemorate the lives of Australians who died in the Second World War (including on the Burma Thailand Railway), and in subsequent years the meaning of the day has been further broadened to include those who lost their lives in all the military and peacekeeping operations in which Australia has been involved.

Australians recognise 25 April as a day of national remembrance, which takes two forms. Commemorative services are held across the nation at dawn – the time of the original landing, while later in the day, former servicemen and servicewomen meet to take part in marches through the country’s major cities and in many smaller centres. Commemorative ceremonies are more formal, and are held at war memorials around the country. In these ways, Anzac Day is a time at which Australians reflect on the many different meanings of war.

The Dawn Service. The Dawn Service observed on Anzac Day has its origins in a military routine still followed by the Australian Army. The half-light of dawn was one of the times favoured for launching an attack. Soldiers in defensive positions were woken in the dark before dawn, so by the time first light crept across the battlefield they were awake, alert, and manning their weapons.

After the First World War, returned soldiers sought the comradeship they had felt in those quiet, peaceful moments before dawn. A dawn vigil became the basis for commemoration in several places after the war. It is difficult to say when the first dawn services were held, as many were instigated by veterans, clergymen, and civilians from all over the country. A dawn requiem mass was held at Albany as early as 1918, and a wreath-laying and commemoration took place at dawn in Toowoomba the following year. Some 150 people gathered at the Cenotaph in 1928 for a wreath-laying and two minutes’ silence. This is generally regarded as the beginning of organised dawn services. Over the years the ceremonies have developed into their modern forms and have seen an increased association with the dawn landings of 25 April 1915.

The Dawn Service is an increasingly popular element of Anzac Day commemorations and the ceremony at Hellfire Pass has become one of the most noted.

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association is committed to the tradition and will continue to support the Dawn Service at Hellfire Pass and the wreath laying service at Kanchanaburi Way Cemetery by continuing the Quiet Lion Tours



Due to the global outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus), the Australian Government has cancelled overseas Anzac Day ceremonies on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, near Villers-Bretonneux in France, including the Australian service at the ‘Digger’ Memorial, Bullecourt, Hellfire Pass in Thailand and Sandakan in Malaysia.

18 March 2020

The increasing spread of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) has serious implications for all travellers. The health and safety of all Australians is paramount to this decision.

The Australian Government has been working in close consultation with the host nations, and considered their concerns and necessary restrictions with regard to mass gatherings. Australians who have registered to attend these events are being informed.

Anzac Day is a significant day for all Australians and is often a time for private reflection. The Department of Veterans’ Affairs encourages all Australians to pause and reflect on the service and sacrifice of the more than 102,000 Australians who have died in wars, conflicts and peacekeeping operations.

Australians are encouraged to continue to mark this important national commemorative date by checking their local guides and watching a televised national service from the Australian War Memorial. This decision has been taken for the 2020 commemorations only, and the Government through the Department of Veterans’ Affairs will plan for next year’s commemorations as is done each year.


Most of the survivors of the Burma-Thailand Railway owe their lives to the devotion of the medical staff. This article honours the Australia Army Medical staff who risked their lives to support, save and comfort the sick and dying workers on the railway. Many thanks go to Peter Winstanley for preparing the original article.. Medical Officers (Doctors) on the Burma Thailand Railway during WW2.

At the fall of Singapore there were about 100 Medical and Dental Officers who became Prisoners of War. There were probably a greater number of Medical Officers from the other Allied forces. 43 Australian Medical Officers and 5 Dental Officers were sent to Burma & Thailand in support of the POWs on the Railway. A list of these officers together with the identity of the Force to which they were attached, follows.

List of Australian Army Medical Corp Officers on the Burma-Thailand Railway

A FORCE To Burma May 1942

HAMILTON, T Lt-Col SMO 2/4 CCS NX70505
COATES, A E Lt-Col 2/10 AGH VX39198
EADIE, N B Lt-Col 2/13 AGH VX14845
HOBBS, A F Maj 2/4 CCS SX10761
FISHER, W E Maj 2/4 CCS NX70506
CHALMERS, J S Maj 2/4 CCS TX2150
KRANTZ, S S Maj 2/4 CCS SX13978
RICHARDS, C R B Capt 2/15 Fd Regt NX70273
ANDERSON, C D Capt 2/4 MGB WX3464
CUMMING, G D Capt 2/10 Fd Amb NX70385
BRERETON, T L G Capt 2/4 CCS NX76108
HIGGIN, J P Capt 2/4 CCS NX34949
WHITE, A J M Capt 2/4 CCS TX6074
SIMPSON, S T Capt (Dentist) 2/4 CCS TX2188
TREVELEVEN WJK Capt (Dentist) 25 Dental Unit VX39266
D FORCE To Southern end of line March 1943
HAZELTON, A R Maj (Dentist) SMO 2/10 Fd Amb NX35134
PARKER, R G Capt 2/10 Fd Amb NX71143
WRIGHT, R G Capt 2/10 AGH NX70664
MILLARD, P T Capt 2/26 Bn NX76511
HINDER, D Capt 2/19 Bn NX76302
DUNCAN, I L Capt RAE NX35135
FINIMORE L T Capt (Dentist) 32 Dental Unit QX25482
DUNLOP FORCE To Southern end of line January 1943
DUNLOP, E E Lt-Col 2/2 CCS VX259
MOON, A A Maj 2/2 CCS NX455
CLARKE, J E R Maj (Dentist) 2/2 CCS QX6245
GODLEE, T Capt 2/3 MGB WX11057
F FORCE To Northern Thailand April 1943
STEVENS, R H Maj SMO 2/12 Fd Amb NX39043
HUNT, B A Maj 2/13 AGH WX11177
ROGERS, E A Maj 2/13 AGH TX2199
CAHILL, R L Capt (Lloyd) 2/19 Bn NX35149
CAHILL, F J Capt (Frank) 2/9 Fd Amb VX39702
HENDRY, P I A Capt 2/10 Fd Amb NX35147
TAYLOR, J L Capt 2/30 Bn NX70453
MILLS, R M Capt 2/10 Fd Amb NX35139
BRAND, V Capt 2/29 Bn VX39085
JUTTNER, C P Capt 2/9 Fd Amb SX14044
MANNION R I Capt (Dentist) 33 Dental Unit QX25481
H FORCE To Southern end of line 1943
MARSDEN, E A Capt (Dentist) 2/10 AGH NX39316
FAGAN, K J Capt (Dentist) 2/10 AGH NX70643
WINCHESTER Mac K Capt (Dentist) 43 ADU NX76600
L FORCE Deployed in medical support of natives August 1943
ANDREWS, H L Capt (Dentist) 2/10 AGH VX39316
MURPHY, P F Maj 2/10 Fld Amb NX70489
CRANKSHAW, T P Maj 2/13 AGH Amb VX62081
K FORCE Deployed in medical support of natives June 1943
DAVIES, G F S Maj 2/13 AGH NX76351
HOGG, T G H Maj 2/13 AGH TX2185
FREW, J K Maj 2/13 AGH VX39181
DREVERMANN, E B Capt Maj 2/13 AGH VX61260

None of the above officers are still alive. Peter Winstanley has produced articles on most of the Australian Medical Officers.

Many of the doctors remained virtually unknown following World War Two even though their work was as heroic as any servicemen on active duty. One has only to think of those eight Medical Officers who were attached to the 250,000 coolies (natives) to appreciate what a difficult and thankless task that would have been. Medical Orderlies fall into the same category.

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association is indebted to Lt Col (Retired) Peter Winstanley OAM RFD (JP) for his work on this subject.

QLT 2020 Accommodation update

2020 Quiet Lion Tour - accommodation

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association (Inc) is calling for application for passengers to join the Quiet Lion Tour for 2020. The 2020 tour is a 12-day, 11-night all-inclusive guided tour to Thailand to visit Hell Fire Pass dawn service and Kanchanaburi Cemetery wreath laying ceremony on ANZAC Day.

The tour also includes, air flights, transfers, meals, accommodation, a commentary on the experiences of the POWs on the railway during WWII and visits to the sites of many of the POW camps. Next year will see some improvements to the accommodation.

The tour has moved to the Royal River Hotel for the first two nights of the tour and then the Centre Point Central Hotel. Both hotels are better appointed; the rooms at the Royal River Hotel have river views and have improved the comfort of our passengers. The positioning of the hotels also improves the access for the tour bus to the airport and the day tour for its passengers.

Bangkok hotel room

A garden room at the Royal River Hotel.

The tour will spend a day in Bangkok and surrounding areas experiencing the Thai culture and then travel inland to areas where the railway was built. The experienced guides will give a running commentary on the struggle of the POWs during the railway construction. The historic part of the culminates in the Heritage work along part of the original railway and ending at the Hell Fire Pass Museum. The detailed itinerary, application form and terms and conditions of the tour are on the BTRMA’s website.


Vacancies remain for the QUIET LION TOUR 2020 which departs Perth on 17th April 2020 and returns on 27th April 2020.

The Tour is for 11 days (10 nights) and the focus is on the story of the Australia POWs, their hospitals and camps and the Australian doctors. The ANZAC Day Dawn Service in Hellfire Pass and the later Memorial Service in the War Cemetery at Kanchanaburi are highlights. The Bridge on the River Kwai, museums and other areas of interest are visited as part of the tour. Descendants of exPOWs and experts on the Thai Burma Railway travel on the tour and provide commentaries in addition to English speaking Thai Guides.

Deluxe class air-conditioned buses with video equipment are used. The Quiet Lion Tours commenced in 1985 and travel to Thailand to honour Sir Edward “Weary” Dunlop, all the other Doctors and medical attendants who tended the sick but most of all the Prisoners of War who suffered on the Burma Thailand Railway. The tours are operated by the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, a non-profit group dedicated to preserving the memory of those who toiled on the Death Railway as Prisoners of War of the Japanese.

There are opportunities in Bangkok for tourism and shopping. Accommodation comprises of 3 nights at top hotels in Bangkok, 1 night at a riverside resort in Kanchanaburi and 6 nights at the Home Phu Toey Resort (on the River Kwai near Hellfire Pass) which includes the Weary Dunlop Peace Park.

For the 2020 Quiet Lion Tour the hotels in Bangkok have been changed to provide an improved service to the travelers. The locations are better from quality, safety, accessibility and presentation purposes.

Another new feature is a cruise along the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok as guests of Thai Airways and the Tourist Authority of Thailand seeing Bangkok at night on board a safe and comfortable cruiser. Take in views of both banks of the river from the open-air upper deck and feast on a gourmet buffet dinner of international dishes traveling along Bangkok’s main waterway enjoying the beauty of the city's monuments, temples and other historic sights, illuminated at night. Be entertained by a live band performance performing hits from different eras

A visit to the Erewan Falls at Kanchanaburi has also been added to the itinerary.

Arrangements can be made for travel from any State in Australia. Significant discounts are available for early fully paid bookings.

The full itinerary and other details are available on the BTRMA web site.

Interested people should contact Tour Organiser Ian Holding on M 0418832281 Tour Leader David Piesse on Tel 9447 7505

Senate Speech on Remembrance Day 2019

On Monday, 11 November 2019 Senator Eric Abetz of Tasmania made the following speech in regard to the death of Tasmanian World War II veteran TX3754 Adye Glen Rockliff of C-Company 2nd/3rd Machine Gun Battalion in World War Two:

“Today I had the privilege of laying a wreath on behalf of the Prime Minister and the people of Australia at the Hobart Cenotaph to commemorate the contribution of our service men and women on this Remembrance Day. As I did so I recalled that last month a simple death notice marking the passing of Tasmanian World War II veteran TX3754, Adye Glen Rockliff. The death notice read as follows: (the widows, children, grandchildren and friends of Adye's comrades from C-Company of 2nd/3rd Machine Gun Battalion extend our deepest sympathy to his family.

A humble, able and much respected man; and—most poignantly—the last surviving prisoner of war of this unit. One of Dunlop's Thousand). He was 98 years old. Adye enlisted in the Second AIF, aged 18, and trained initially in Tasmania. The 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion was formed in June 1940 and served in Egypt, Syria, the Netherlands, the East Indies and New Guinea. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Blackburn, the battalion was primarily a South Australian unit, although it had subunits: B Company in Victoria, C Company in Tasmania and D Company in Western Australia.

In April 1941, the battalion embarked for the Middle East. In June and July it saw action against Vichy French forces in Syria with the 7th division. Following Japan's entry into the war, Australian troops from the Middle East were transferred to the Pacific region. In early 1942, the Japanese advanced through the Netherlands East Indies. Four days after the fall of Singapore, and on the day Darwin was bombed, Australian troops disembarked in Java from the troopship Orcades, having been diverted on their return journey to Australia.

Adye's unit was joined by the 2nd/2nd Pioneer Battalion and the 2nd/2nd Casualty Clearing Station, which had served at Tobruk. The clearing station included the much renowned surgeon Edward 'Weary' Dunlop, a man whom I had the privilege of meeting.

These units and others already on the island became known as Black Force.

On the night of 28 February, when the Japanese began landing, Tasmania C Company was at the forefront of the action. It resulted in the loss of seven members killed and 28 wounded, but afterwards they found that they had killed no fewer than 200 Japanese. However, Black Force was ordered to surrender on 9 March, following the Dutch capitulation the day before.

Members of Black Force unit spent captivity in a wide range of locations, including Thailand, Japan and Singapore. One hundred and thirty-nine from the 2nd/3rd MG Battalion died as prisoners. Adye and other Tasmanians moved to a prisoner-of-war camp and came under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Weary Dunlop. They were then transferred to Changi, in Singapore, and then the Burma-Thailand railway.

Nine thousand five hundred Australians worked on this railway, where 2,646 died from the deprivations, the effects of tropical diseases and malnutrition. This was despite the heroic efforts of doctors and officers like Weary Dunlop. After 18 months of this brutal existence, Adye and some of his unit were selected to work in Japan in undersea coalmines. His convoy of 14 transport ships suffered bad weather and attacks by allied submarines, meaning only four ships reached Japan. Twenty-seven members of his machine gun battalion died on one of those sunken ships.

Rockliff survived in the coalmine until the end of the war. He returned to Tasmania after six years at war and immediately found it difficult to reacclimatise to normal life, no longer fighting to survive each day or dealing with life-or-death issues. He found Australia had changed. His brothers and sisters had grown. And he felt the loss of being part of a large organisation such as the Army. Like his prisoner-of-war camp commander Weary Dunlop, after the war Adye became an advocate for his returned comrades, often battling the department for medical and social assistance for fellow mates.

In recent years, he took the opportunity to write to the Minister for Veterans' Affairs and also to write a book on his wartime experience, entitled simply The War Time Memories of Adye Rockliff. Adye was the loving husband of his wife, Sheila (deceased); loving father of John (deceased), David, Kathy and Chris; father-in-law of Merril and Sue; and grandfather of Claire, Megan, Aaron and Luke.

Adye Glen Rockliff's sacrifice in war for his family and his country was typical of many Australians who served in World War II and those who continue to serve in the Australian Defence Force. His battles with the Department of Veterans' Affairs remind us of the importance of getting the right response by government to the recommendations of the Productivity Commission's review of veterans' entitlements. His life reminds us of the importance of Australian values mateship, loyalty and courage in the face of adversity and that there are virtues, values and principles which are worthy of sacrifice.

His sacrifice and that of his fellow veterans was acknowledged by the Prime Minister in his recent visit to Hellfire Pass and the memorial to our prisoners of war that were on the Burma Thailand Railway. The memorial, I had the honour of visiting—and, indeed, of hearing, as I walked around, the reminiscences of former Labor minister Tom Uren and former Liberal government Senate leader John Carrick, both of whom continued their service, after the war, in this parliament.

It is appropriate on days such as this to reflect that our privilege to serve in this place was bought with the blood and lives of our forebears and continues to be protected today by similarly minded individuals in our ADF. In my home state, we have seen the Headstone Project in Tasmania mark the final resting place of World War I veterans who previously lay in unmarked graves. It is right and proper to continue the tradition of acknowledging the sacrifices of our diggers on Remembrance Day and to offer our deep heartfelt thanks to all those who served in any war or conflict. "

"Lest we forget”.

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association extend their commiserations to the family of Adye Glen Rockliff and record their gratitude to Senator Eric Abetz for addressing the Senate.

The Association also acknowledges with thanks the source of the speech in the Senate as published in Hansard.

Remembrance Day – 11 November



Excerpt from The Anzac Portal: Reference Here

“The Burma-Thailand railway was the common and dominant experience of Australian POWs. It distorted or ended the lives of over half of the Australian prisoners of the Japanese…” Hank Nelson, 'Measuring the railway' in Gavan McCormack and Hank Nelson (eds), The Burma–Thailand Railway, Sydney, Allen & Unwin, 1993, 17, 19.

But 'Hellfire Pass' was more than just a cutting. In its vicinity a sequence of bridges and embankments were needed to keep the railway route along the escarpment level. There were also many camps housing the thousands of workers, including Australians. These have now disappeared into the exquisitely beautiful landscape, but they have been reclaimed as witnesses to the POW story.

The Anzac legend and Australian memory

Over the years this story of atrocity and suffering has become an affirmation of Australian courage and resilience. Although prisoners of war suffered the humiliation of being defeated and captured, they came to be portrayed as men who had triumphed over adversity. Displaying in captivity the qualities of humour, resourcefulness and mateship, they were able to integrate their experiences into the dominant national memory of war since the Gallipoli campaign of 1915, the Anzac 'legend'.

The POW experience is also remembered for the dedicated service of the medical personnel who, with little equipment or medicines, cared for desperately ill men in primitive hospitals. Most famous of these doctors is the POW surgeon Sir Edward 'Weary' Dunlop. His statue now stands outside the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, not so far from another iconic image of compassion, Simpson and his donkey. Although Dunlop was only one of 106 Australian POW medical officers, in recent years he has come to represent them all—and the values of courage and compassion that they and many Australians manifested in captivity.

The workers

Military units to which the Australians belonged were broken up into work forces to meet the Japanese need for labour. From late 1942 more than 13,000 Australians were sent from Singapore, Java and Timor to work on the Thai–Burma railway.

The enemy

Around 12,000 Japanese and 800 Korean soldiers worked on the Thai–Burma railway as engineers or guards. They were some of over five million soldiers who served with the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

Excerpt from The Anzac Portal: Reference here

The Building of Hellfire Pass

"It seems to run without much regard to the landscape as though someone had drawn a line on a map!" [E.E. Dunlop, The War Diaries of Weary Dunlop, Ringwood, Victoria, Penguin, 1989, 212.]

The Thai–Burma railway was built in 1942–43 to supply the Japanese forces in Burma, bypassing the sea routes that were made vulnerable when Japanese naval strength was reduced in the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942.

Once the railway was completed the Japanese planned to attack the British in India, and in particular the road and airfields used by the Allies to supply China over the Himalayan Mountains.

Begun in October 1942 and completed on 16 October 1943, the railway stretched 415 kilometres between Nong Pladuk in Thailand and Thanbyuzayat in Burma (now Myanmar).

A rail connection between Thailand and Burma had been proposed decades before World War II. In the 1880s the British had surveyed a possible route but abandoned the project because of the challenges posed by the thick jungle, endemic diseases and lack of adequate roads.

The Japanese also carried out a survey in the 1920s and, after completing a further survey in early 1942, decided in June to proceed, using the large workforce of Allied POWs now at their disposal. At this time Japanese engineers were assisted by small numbers of prisoners marking and roughly clearing the route of the railway.

Aiming to finish the railway as quickly as possible the Japanese decided to use a massive workforce of prisoners and Asian labourers or rōmusha. The railway was to be constructed by units working along its entire length rather than just from each end.

Since 1945 prisoners of war and the Burma-Thailand Railway have come to occupy a central place in Australia's national memory of World War II. There are good reasons for this. Over 22,000 Australians were captured by the Japanese when they conquered South East Asia in early 1942. More than a third of these men and women died in captivity. This was about 20 per cent of all Australian deaths in World War II. The shock and scale of these losses affected families and communities across the nation of only 7 million people.

This article focuses on Hellfire Pass (Konyu Cutting), the deepest and most dramatic of the many cuttings along the Burma-Thailand railway. Not all Australian POWs worked here in 1943. Nor was the workforce in this region exclusively Australian. However, in recent years Hellfire Pass has come to represent the suffering of all Australian prisoners across the Asia–Pacific region. The experiences of prisoners elsewhere were, in fact, very diverse but this article can only hint at these. The Burma-Thailand railway Since 1945 prisoners of war and the Burma-Thailand Railway have come to occupy a central place in Australia's national memory of World War II.

There are good reasons for this. Over 22,000 Australians were captured by the Japanese when they conquered South East Asia in early 1942. More than a third of these men and women died in captivity. This was about 20 per cent of all Australian deaths in World War II. The shock and scale of these losses affected families and communities across the nation of only 7 million people.

This article focuses on Hellfire Pass (Konyu Cutting), the deepest and most dramatic of the many cuttings along the Burma-Thailand railway. Not all Australian POWs worked here in 1943. Nor was the workforce in this region exclusively Australian. However, in recent years Hellfire Pass has come to represent the suffering of all Australian prisoners across the Asia–Pacific region. The experiences of prisoners elsewhere were, in fact, very diverse but this article can only hint at these.

The Burma-Thailand railway

The Burma-Thailand railway (known also as the Burma–Thailand or Burma–Siam railway) was built in 1942–43. Its purpose was to supply the Japanese forces in Burma, bypassing the sea routes which had become vulnerable when Japanese naval strength was reduced in the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942. Once the railway was completed the Japanese planned to attack the British in India, and in particular the road and airfields used by the Allies to supply China over the Himalayan Mountains.

Aiming to finish the railway as quickly as possible the Japanese decided to use the more than 60,000 Allied prisoners who had fallen into their hands in early 1942. These included troops of the British Empire, Dutch and colonial personnel from the Netherlands East Indies and a small number of US troops sunk on the USS Houston during the Battle of Java Sea. About 13,000 of the prisoners who worked on the railway were Australian.

To meet the tight deadlines the Japanese had set for completing the railway, a further 200,000 Asian labourers or rōmusha (the precise number is not known) were enticed or coerced into working for the Japanese. The 415km railway ran from Thanbyuzayat in Burma (now Myanmar) to Non Pladuk in Thailand. It was constructed by units working along its entire length rather than just from each end. This meant that the already difficult problems of supply became impossible during the monsoonal season of mid-1943.

Starved of food and medicines, and forced to work impossibly long hours in remote unhealthy locations, over 12,000 POWs, including more than 2,700 Australians, died. The number of rōmusha dead is not known but it was probably up to 90,000.

Remembering the railway

All memory is selective. Communities, like individuals, remember some stories of the past while forgetting others. For memories to survive at the collective or national level they need to be championed—not just once but over the decades. Many Australians performed that role for prisoners of the Japanese. World War II ex-prisoners published memoirs and eye-witness accounts. Many proved to be immensely popular. Russell Braddon's The Naked Island (1951), for example, sold well over a million copies and stayed in print for decades.

There were also memorable fictional accounts of captivity, some of which were adapted for commercial films and television series. The most famous of these was The Bridge on the River Kwai which, though bearing little resemblance to events in 1942-43, generated a popular interest in the railway which continues to this day. In the 1980s Australian ex-POWs returned to Thailand and reclaimed Hellfire Pass from the jungle which had swallowed it when the Burma-Thailand railway was demolished after World War II. The cutting soon became a site of memory for many Australians, particularly on Anzac Day. Its dramatic scale and its towering walls, scarred with drill incisions made by hand, spoke particularly vividly to the hardships endured by POWs.

The building of the Hellfire Pass Memorial Museum by the Australian government in 1998 also made it a key site of memory, attracting tourists and 'pilgrims' of many nationalities.

The terrain the railway crossed made its construction very difficult. However, its route was not entirely the dense and inhospitable jungle of popular imagination. At either end, in Thailand and Burma, the rail track travelled through gentle landscape before entering the rugged and mountainous jungle on the border between the two countries. When the track reached Wampo, about 112km from the Thai terminus, it started to meet jagged limestone hills, interspersed with streams and gullies. During the monsoon season, the land became waterlogged and unstable. This posed problems for construction as well as for transport and supply.

As far as possible the railway track proceeded at a gentle gradient, as steam trains could only climb a slight incline. Where the railway met unavoidable hills, cuttings were dug to allow the line to proceed. Often the line emerged from a deep cutting onto a series of embankments, and bridges. In all, 688 bridges were built along the railway. In addition, over sixty stations were built to allow trains to pass one another, as well as refuelling and watering points.

More than 60,000 Allied prisoners of war were employed in the construction of the Thai–Burma railway, including British Empire troops, Dutch and colonial troops from the Netherlands East Indies and a smaller number of US troops. About 13,000 of the prisoners were Australian.

In addition, the Japanese enticed or coerced about 200,000 Asians labourers (rōmusha) to work on the railway. These included Burmese, Javanese, Malays, Tamils and Chinese. Over 12,000 Allied prisoners died during the construction of the railway, including more than 2,700 Australians. Around 1,000 Japanese died. It is difficult to determine precisely how many rōmusha died, as record keeping was poor. The number is estimated to be between 75,000 and 100,000.

Despite being repeatedly bombed by the Allies, the Thai–Burma railway did operate as a fully functioning railway after its completion. Between November 1943 and March 1944 over 50,000 tonnes of food and ammunition were carried to Burma as well as two complete divisions of troops for the Japanese offensive into India. This attack, one of their last, was defeated by British and Indian forces.

As the railway was used to support the Japanese in Burma until the end of the war, prisoners of war and rōmusha continued to work on maintenance and repair tasks after the railway construction was completed.

“We do not know this Australian's name and we never will. We do not know his rank or his battalion. We do not know where he was born, nor precisely how and when he died. We do not know where in Australia he had made his home or when he left it for the battlefields of Europe. We do not know his age or his circumstances – whether he was from the city or the bush; what occupation he left to become a soldier; what religion, if he had a religion; if he was married or single. We do not know who loved him or whom he loved. If he had children, we do not know who they are. His family is lost to us as he was lost to them. We will never know who this Australian was. Yet he has always been among those whom we have honoured. The Unknown Soldier honours the memory of all those men and women who laid down their lives for Australia.”

Remembrance Day 1993: excerpt from commemorative address by PM Hon Paul Keating MP

BTRMA Inc Annual General Meeting – Sunday 14 July

Just a little reminder that the BTRMA Annual General Meeting will be held at 2:30pm this Sunday 14 July in the Lecture Theatre at the Hollywood Private Hospital. All are welcome. We will be addressing usual AGM business as well as reporting back about the 2019 Quiet Lion Tour. The meeting is usually completed within half an hour and everyone is invited to enjoy a cuppa, some afternoon tea and a yarn.

To register for updates via Facebook, click here.

If you aren't able to join us, we would be very appreciative if you could please complete a form to appoint a proxy on your behalf. Click here to download the agenda and required form.

For any other business, click here to send us an email.

We look forward to seeing you on Sunday. - The BTRMA Committee.


Chairman of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Eric Wilson OAM APM, Vice Chairman Ian Holding and Tour Leader David Piesse attended the 21st Memorial Service for ex Prisoners of War conducted by Mount Lawley Senior High School at Kings Park on 3rd May 2019.

A wreath was laid on behalf of the BTRMA by the Chairman and Vice Chairman.

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, the Ex-Prisoners of War Association and the Mount Lawler Senior High School have been associated with this function since 1997. Mount Lawley Senior High School has been regularly represented on the Quiet Lion Tour to Thailand for Anzac Day by students of the School

Again, it was a beautiful sunny day and a large contingent of people that included Arthur Leggett OAM ED, (President of the ex-POW Association), assembled at the Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial in Kings Park on 4th May, 2018. The service, now in its 22nd year, was co-ordinated and supported admirably by the Principal, Staff and Students from Mount Lawley Senior High School. This-included a wonderful choir, concert band and bugler Shannon Barrie.

The Australia Defence Force was well represented together with many veterans and their families. The Repatriation Commissioner of the Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Major General Mark Kelly AO DSC was present with other distinguished guests. At the 2019 Memorial Service the Master of Ceremonies, Head Boy Ronan McEwen, opened proceedings with an Acknowledgement of Country and an address of welcome.

Mount Lawley Senior High School Chaplain, Mr Andrew Paul, presented the Call to Worship and referred to the first two students to attend the tour in 1998, Erin St Duke and Katherine Cooper, quoting sections of Erin’s address to a school assembly on her return. Mr Paul also referred to the value of the relationship between the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association and the Mount Lawley Senior High School.

The school choir delivered a beautiful rendition of the hymn Abide With Me. School prefect Lucy Sutherland recited Psalm 121. School Principal Ms Lesley Street addressed the assembled guests with an excellent presentation during which reference was made to the passing of ex-POWs Sydney Shaw, John Gilmour and Professor Alex Kerr since the 2018 ceremony. Arthur Leggett OAM ED, addressed the ceremony with a moving speech during which he recited a poem, without missing a word, he had composed for the occasion. Year 9 student Amy Carter delivered an address. School Prefect Daniel Hall delivered The Lord’s Prayer.

Year 9 Councillors Ruby Molyneaux and Will Corbett laid the school wreath followed by many wreaths from individuals and kindred organisations. School prefect Sophia Profumo recited the Ode. Bugler, School Prefect Shannon Barrie rendered The Last Post and after one minute silence the Reveille.Flags were raised from half mast in perfect unison. The assembly sang the National Anthem before Mr Andrew Paul completed the ceremony with the Blessing.

The service concluded with tea, coffee and light refreshments supplied by the catering students at Mount Lawley Senior High School - including a packet of Anzac Cookies.

Once again, a wonderful effort by all concerned.

Eric Wilson

Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association.


The Quiet Lion Tour, conducted by the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, was again present on ANZAC Day, 25 April 2019, in Thailand when the event was commemorated with a Dawn Service and Gunfire Breakfast at Hellfire Pass and a Commemorative Service and Wreath Laying at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery.

The Dawn Service is in Hellfire Pass situated in Sai Yoke, commencing at 5.30 a.m. and lasting approximately 40 minutes. The site is actually Kannyu Cutting, below the Hellfire Pass Interpretive Centre, Kanchanaburi Province.

Hellfire Pass is accessed through the Royal Thai Army camp at Sai Yok which is the site of the Kannyu 1 Prisoner of War Camp and burial grounds from the building of the Burma Thailand Railway. Walking into the site is via newly installed steps and ramps down the steep face of the cutting and then along the old railway line. The ceremonial area at the end of the cutting has limited seating arrangements in hard tiers cut from the rock wall on one side and a substantial temporary grandstand on the other.

There is a catafalque and wreath laying area in the centre of the ceremonial area. Approximately 1,500 people are accommodated in the ceremonial area and another 800 or so people in the adjacent pass.

On completion of the Dawn Service in Kannyu Cutting those attending the service enjoy a complimentary gunfire breakfast in the car park at the Hellfire Pass Interpretive Centre.

ANZAC Day in Kanchanaburi, Thailand 25th April 2019–Kanchanaburi War Cemetery

The commemorative service commences at 1100 (11.00 a.m.) at Kanchanaburi (Don Rak) War Cemetery, Kanchanaburi and lasts approximately 50-60 minutes.

All service attendees are invited to attend a Post Service barbeque held directly after the service from 1200 – 1500 in a clearing to the east of the War Cemetery. Generous local sponsors have provided a limited amount of food free of charge, and refreshments are available for purchase with all proceeds to be directed towards service charities.

The 2019 Quiet Lion Tour again attended both services and in the case of Kanchanaburi assisted in the wreath-laying phase. It was significant that ex-POW Harold Martin again attended the services and recited the Ode on both occasions. With assistance, Harold laid a wreath at the Kanchanaburi catafalque and Quiet Lion Tour juniors acted as wreath laying assistants there.

At the Dawn Service, the Anzac Address was delivered by His Excellency Allan McKinnon PSM, the Australian Ambasador to Thailand, and the Statement of Remembrance was delivered by Wing Commander David Bryers, Royal New Zealand Air Force.

At the Kanchanaburi War Cemetery Commemorative Service the prologue was delivered by Air Marshall Leo Davies AO,CSC, Chief of Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, the Anzac Address was delivered by His Excellency Taha Macpherson, New Zealand Ambassador to Thailand.The ex-POW Address was delivered by Mr Eric Wilson APM OAM, Chairman of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association. on behalf of the late Neil MacPherson OAM.

A tribute of Mustafa Kemal Attaturk was delivered by the Ambassador of the Republic of Turkey, Her Excellency Ms Evren Dogdelan Akgun and the Ode of Remembrance by Mr Harold Martin.

In the evening preceding the Anzac Day services, an alfresco welcome reception was hosted in by Home Phu Toey Managing Director Suparerk Soorangoora in the Weary Dunlop Park outside the Dunlop Museum, followed by the traditional Light and Sound Show in the specially built arena, and a celebratory dinner with Australian and New Zealand Ambassadors, service chiefs, dignitaries and the Quiet Lion Group. Quiet Lion group tour leader David Piesse welcomed the guests and invited the two Ambassadors to address those in attendance.

The occasion marked a great prelude to the Anzac Day commemorations. All attending (that were in a position to compare) considered the newly rebuilt and fitted Hellfire Pass Interpretive Centre (hitherto generally known as the Hellfire Pass Museum) was a magnificent effort.

The graphics, exhibits and displays, together with the flow of exhibits, artefacts and video displays make for a remarkable experience. If any features could be isolated from the rest it would be the remarkable full length photographs of the late Bill Haskell rounding a bend in Hellfire Pass with the aid of his walking stick and Harold Martin sitting in a typical pose (Photo by Samm Blake).

The new outside area at the top of stairways to the pass below really adds to the spectacle. All involved in the planning, conception and completion of this project are to be congratulated.

Eric Wilson

Chairman, Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association.

VALE – Neil MacPherson OAM

Neil MacPherson

Neil Ormiston MacPherson WX16572 of 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion of Williams Force Burma Thailand Railway 1942-1944, Japan 1945.

Born 14th May 1922. Enlisted 22nd September 1941. Died 30th March 2019.

Trained with 11th Battalion Senior Cadets in 1938-39.

Trained at Northam Training Camp. November 1941 to the Middle East on HMT Queen Mary. To Palestine for training. Transferred from 24TH Infantry Training Battalion to 2/2 Pioneer Battalion. January 1942 left Middle East on HMT Orcades with 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion and others to Dutch East Indies. Full Pioneer Battalion landed at Tanjong Priok, Java and saw action against the Japanese before capture. Transferred to Singapore on Kendon Maru and to Rangoon, Burma, on Mayabashi Maru in October 1942. To Moulmein on Yamagata Maru. Joined Williams Force.

In February 1942, 3000 Australians, the vanguard of the 7th Division, returning to Australia from the Middle East on the SS Orcades, were diverted to Java to help stem the Japanese invasion sweeping towards Australia.

On the 8th March 1942 the Dutch authorities surrendered the island along with all allied forces. At age 19 years Neil MacPherson became a prisoner of a cruel and brutal regime and joined over 22,000 fellow Australians. Of those over 8,000 or 36% paid the supreme sacrifice, most were to suffer intolerably cruel and lingering deaths.

In September 1942 under the command of legendary C.O. Lt Colonel Williams, 1800 prisoners from Java were shipped to Burma in dreadful conditions in three separate Hell Ships.

In Burma, Williams Force of 800 men was made up of 450 of Pioneers from the Middle East, the rest mainly young sailors, survivors of HMAS Perth. The officers had been in action in Syria and Java so was held in high esteem by the Pioneers.

Arriving in Thanbyuzayat in October 1942, Williams Force joined Brigadier Varley’s A Force of 3000 Australians just arrived from the port of Tavoy. A Force was the first Australians to start work on the Burma Thailand Railway.

The next Australians, Dunlop Force No 5 Group, arrived in Burma in January 1943 from Java and was the first Australian group to commence work on the Thailand end of the Burma Thailand railway.

The following 15 months were to test the mettle, morale, and Anzac spirit of the Australian prisoners in Burma. A starvation diet of a hand full of rice and watery (usually meatless) stew. Work clearing the jungle, on embankments, on cuttings, on bridges in the heat of the dry, and the misery and slush of the wet.

Clothes and footwear, long destroyed in the foetid jungle the only protection from the burning heat and the rain, was a loincloth. Bed bugs and lice left by native workers made for harrowing and restless nights, deaths were continuous and the numbers dwindled as work hours grew.

No 1 force actually worked continually through the wet, from Thanbuzayat right through into Thailand where the two ends of the Railway were joined on 17th October 1943.

With no drugs whatsoever, malaria, dysentery, beri beri, pellagra, tropical ulcers smallpox and finally cholera took its toll. The dedicated Doctors and medical staff were supermen, working with make shift tools, without them losses would have doubled.

The survivors, wrecks of men in rags, staggered out of their jungle camps in January 1944 to be transported to the well organised, better-equipped camps in Tamarkan & Kanburi (Kanchanaburi and Tha Makan). Despite a continuing death rate from the results of the ordeal, after six months of improved food and lighter work survivors regained some semblance of health but this transpired to be a well designed plan by the captors.

Thousands of Railway workers, Australians in a majority, were selected for shipment to Japan as slave labor, to work in mines, factories and on the docks. Thousands of them died in Hell Ships from attacks by US submarines and aircraft. Neil Macpherson’s luck as a survivor continued. He was on the last ship, the Awa Maru (his fourth Hell Ship), to successfully make the journey. He arrived in Japan in January 1945, the coldest winter Japan experienced in 40 years, to spend the remaining months working in a coalmine.

An unknown author described conditions on board these Hell Ships thus:

“Crowded onto cramped platforms, with barely enough space to turn around, a mass of unwashed bodies struggling to survive in a sea of sweat and revolting smells, in the stifling heat of the holds. Initially in the tropical heat near the equator, but the ensuing month was to see us making our way across snow covered decks for our limited toilet functions”

Finally, the ordeal was over, the Japanese capitulated and the POWs were liberated.

On 16th August, 1945, the prisoners of Neil’s group were freed. Left Senryu on 14th September for Nagasaki where they boarded ships en route to Okinawa. They travelled by B24 Liberator bombers to Luzon Island and by C45 Transports to Manila. By aircraft carrier HMS Formidable to Sydney and train to Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth.

Final discharge was on 11th February 1946.

The exPOWs took up life where they left off, brought up families, helped build a great nation, most drew a curtain on the horrors through which they had lived.

Maturing quickly, they adapted, found a maturity far above their age, learned self discipline - most importantly they discovered “mate-ship”. Neil MacPherson was fond of quoting Duncan Butler of the 2/12th Field Ambulance who wrote the poem Mates with the theme.

“No prisoner on the railway survived who did not have a mate”.

Vale Neil Ormiston MacPherson OAM

Hellfire Pass Memorial Project

The Australian Thai Chamber of Commerce coordinated arrangements for the design, construction and maintenance of a memorial along an abandoned section of the route of the railway line constructed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1942 43 between Burma and Thailand. These arrangements were conducted with the kind cooperation of the Government of Thailand, particularly the Armed Forces Development Command. The memorial complex is intended to honour the Allied Prisoners of War and conscripted people from India, Burma, Malaya and other countries who died during the construction of the railway, as well as all who suffered as a consequence of the hardships endured during the railway's construction.


The original aim of the Project was to provide access pathways to Konyu Cutting at Hellfire Pass on the abandoned portion of the Thai Burma Railway. A Thai team conducted a detailed survey of the proposed route of the access pathways in October 1986, from which site plans were produced and approved in November 1986. Actual construction of the pathways commenced in early January 1987 and this was completed in mid March 1987. In April 1987 the Hellfire Pass Memorial Dedication Ceremony occurred with Sir Edward Dunlop making the dedication. To assist in the compiling of the wartime history of the area, a request for air photo coverage was made to the UK Ministry of Defence. Photos of excellent quality taken in December 1944 clearly show details of the railway together with roads and the remains of a camp at Konyu. A map was produced with sufficient detail to illustrate the important features of the area. Ken Bradley was the main contributor with advice from Bill Haskell.


The Hellfire Pass Memorial Project was coordinated by the "Hellfire Pass Sub Committee" of the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce and it was the Chamber's main contribution to the Australian Bicentennial 1988 Programme in Thailand. The initial phase of the project was funded by a grant of A$31,000 from the Australian Government.

The memorial concept became a reality under the leadership and guidance of Ken Bradley, who, through considerable devotion of time and energy, had been the mainstay of the project from inception to reality. Former PoW, Tom Morris, who originated the project concept, provided much essential background information, enthusiasm and encouragement during the establishment of the Memorial. Numerous other ex PoWs have made helpful contributions to documenting the history of the Hellfire Pass area. Special mention is due to Jim Appleby (Snowy Mountains Electricity Corporation) for initiating the Project and to his successors, notably Mike Power, for continuing to make outstanding contributions.

Other important contributors were Colonel Lachie Thomson, former Defense Attaché at the Australian Embassy, and his counterpart at the British Embassy, Colonel Mike Allen, who succeeded in locating air photo coverage of the area. The Hellfire Pass Sub Committee received encouragement and support from a number of government officials. Early visitors to the site included H.E. Ambassador Richard Smith; Foreign Minister Bill Hayden; the Minister for Arts, Heritage and Environment Barry Cohen; and the Shadow Minister for Veterans' Affairs Tim Fischer. Following his visit, Tim Fischer drew attention to the Hellfire Pass Project in a speech to the Australian House of Representatives on 27 February 1987.


Over the years the Australian armed forces have had exchange programs with the Thailand military. During some of these exchange visits Australian service personnel have visited Hellfire Pass to carry out work projects. One such visit took place in April 1989 when 33 members of 'C' Company 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, spent three days carrying out maintenance work at the memorial site. Their toil culminated in the re laying of a single section of original rail and sleepers in Konyu Cutting. These rails were laid on 22nd April, almost 46 years to the day since excavation work began at Hellfire Pass. In June 1990, 26 sailors from HMAS Perth and HMAS Swan carried out further maintenance work. As with the other groups of Australian servicemen, the sentiments of this group were that it was indeed an honour to assist with the upkeep of the memorial.

Exercise "Clear Trek" took a working party of some of the ship's company of HMAS Tobruk and some of the attached army personnel to Hellfire Pass in November 1990. Their aim was to clear the walking tracks of the ever-encroaching jungle and to make essential repairs to the timber stairways. October 1991 saw the demolition of the wooden stairway by members of the Western Australian based SAS Regiment and the start of work to replace them with concrete. This work was completed during December. At a service held on 4 February 1992 a monument featuring a bronze relief map of the area traversed by the railway and containing a time capsule was dedicated in the presence of a large gathering.

The start of the wet season in 1993 again saw major army involvement at Hellfire Pass with troops of Base Squadron, SAS Regiment involved in Exercise Burma Rail 1993 carrying out a major clearing exercise in the cutting. In February of 1994 the entire length of Hellfire Pass and the access pathway were given a major cleaning prior to the visit by Mr Paul Keating, Prime Minister of Australia on 9th April. Later the same month a plaque honouring the medical personnel, who saved so many lives during the construction of the railway, was erected and dedicated during the service to inter the ashes of Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop (12 Jul 1907 - 2 Jul 1993, age 85) on ANZAC Day 1994. Since that time the memorial has been kept clean by regular maintenance by Chamber of Commerce personnel on a voluntary basis. Also, during this time preliminary clearing and survey work was carried out northwards from Konyu Cutting along the route of the abandoned railway towards Hintok as a precursor to the establishment of a safe walking trail from Hellfire Pass to Compressor Cutting.

As donated funds have become available, further major work has been carried out. In late 1994 to early 1995 the "Bamboo" trail which winds around the back of the mountain above Hellfire Pass was upgraded to a concrete walking path and stairways. Rod Beattie of the Thailand Burma Railway Centre and curator of the Kanchanaburi and Chunkai Cemeteries has been heavily involved over the years and the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce is extremely grateful for his tireless efforts.


Major upgrading and improvements to the site have been funded by private and corporate donations, proceeds of sales of the Memorial booklet and the sale of slices of original rail bearing a small plaque. More recently funds have been raised by the sale of original rail "dog" spikes set in a piece of original sleeper carrying a small plaque. Additional funds have been raised by a Melbourne based group headed by Mr Bill Toon, a former prisoner of war and veteran of the Thailand Burma Railway.


In May 1995, the Australian Government announced that it would provide funding (A$1.6 million) for the development of a substantial memorial complex at Hellfire Pass. This development was to be done over a period of two years and include development and construction of a museum/visitor information centre, construction of concrete stairways to provide a safe walking trail along the cleared section of abandoned railway northwards from Hellfire Pass construction of rest stations and information displays along the walking trail, improved road access and the construction of a car park adjacent to the museum/information centre. During 1995 and early 1996 more than four kilometres of the abandoned rail bed, from Hellfire Pass to Compressor Cutting was cleared of fifty years of jungle re-growth. Most of this work was done as a voluntary personal tribute by Rod Beattie and his wife Thuy to those men who worked and died building the Thailand Burma Railway.

Subsequently a further four kilometres was also cleared. This length is probably the longest continuous section of wartime railway still in existence in Thailand and contains probably the greatest concentration of major works of the railway. During the clearing of the railway many wartime relics were uncovered. Small items, such as rock drills used for drilling blast holes, steelwork from trestle bridges, items from the telephone line and debris from the air raids may eventually be displayed in the museum. More substantial features such as the narrow-gauge rail track, used to carry spoil away from some of the larger cuttings, have been or may be reconstructed in their original positions.

Early in 1996, when the government funding became available, construction of the permanent improvements began. Initially this was the work involved in making the walking trail safe and fairly easily negotiable for visitors. Concrete stairways were built over all difficult sections and a series of small covered rest stations were erected along the trail at significant locations. Information panels have subsequently been erected in each of these rest stations. A substantial rest station complete with toilets has been built at the junction of the abandoned railway and a local gravel road, close to the site of the former Hintok Railway Station. This rest station can be reached by vehicles, and provides a convenient pick up point for those walking the trail. The memorial walking trail was officially opened on ANZAC Day in 1996.

The major element of the Hellfire Pass Memorial Project is undoubtedly the museum/visitor information centre. A structure of this nature is of two major components, the building itself, and the display within the building. A renowned firm of museum designers, Hewitt Design Associates, was commissioned to design the display element of the museum and the visitor information panels of the walking trail. A Bangkok based Australian firm of architects, Woods Bagot (Thailand), designed the building and prepared all of the necessary documents leading to the selection of a local contractor to build the museum. The memorial museum/information centre was opened by the Australian Prime Minister, Mr John Howard, on 24th April 1998.

Early 1985Initial reconnaissance of line by Jim Appleby, Engineer with the Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation based at Khao Laem Dam, River Kwai
May - July 1986 Detailed survey of area by Ken Bradley, Jeff Thompson and Thai contractors
Dec 1986 - Feb 1987 Construction of access pathways, stairway and steps
April 1987Hellfire Pass Memorial Dedication Ceremony
April 1989Rails relaid by 'C' Company 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment
April 1990ANZAC Day Dawn Service and Dedication for relaid rails.
June 1990Maintenance visit by Australian Navy HMAS Perth and HMAS Swan
November 1990Maintenance visit by Australian Navy and attached Australian Army service personnel HMAS Tobruk
October 1991Demolition of wooden stairways by SAS Regiment
Nov - Dec 1991Construction of concrete stairways
February 1992Dedication of Monument with time capsule
July 1993Exercise Burma Rail '93 by SAS Regiment
April 1994Visit by Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating
April 1994Interment of the ashes of Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop
May - Aug 1994Investigation of railway from Konyu to Compressor cutting and preparation of proposal for major development
Dec 1994 Feb 1995Reconstruction of "Bamboo Trail"
May 1995Australian Government announces the grant of funding to develop the site into a significant memorial
May 1995 - April 1996Clearing of 4.5km of the abandoned railway and establishment of a walking trail
April 1996Official opening of memorial walking trail
Aug 1996 - Feb 1997Construction of way stations and rest areas along the walking trail
Aug 1996 - April 1997Clearing of a further 4km of abandoned railway
Aug 1996 - April 1997Construction of memorial museum
April 1998Official opening of memorial museum by Australian Prime Minister John Howard
2007New access stairs and landings erected by Hewitt Pender Design Associates

VALE – Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Ken Bladen AM

Lt. Col. Ken Bladen AM

Born 8 July 1934. Died 22 February 2019. Funeral - Karrakatta 7 March 2019.

Past Chairman and Life Member of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Inc.

Beloved husband of Stephanie and loving father of Louise, Penny (dec) and Emma; father-in- law to John and Cameron, passed away peacefully at Hollywood Hospital 22nd February. “Duty First”. Ken was a graduate of the OCS class of June 1954 and served with 1 RAR and 2 RAR in Malaya 1961 – 1963 and 7 RAR in SVN from April to November 1967.

Kenneth John Bladen was born in Western Australia and educated at Guildford Grammar School. He later graduated as a Second Lieutenant from the Australian Army Officer Cadet School as a career Infantry Officer and for the next 21 years served in various regimental, instructional and staff appointments in Australia and overseas.

His service as a junior officer included anti-terrorist operations in Malaya as a platoon commander, and as a foundation officer of the Special Air Service (SAS) Company in Perth. He served overseas with the lst, 2nd, and 7th Battalions of the Royal Australian Regiment, and in 1967 he saw active service in Vietnam as an Infantry Company commander with the 7th Battalion, the Royal Australian Regiment.

Ken was a graduate of the Australian Staff College 1968 course and won the Queen's Medal for Champion Shots in 1969, as the Army Champion Shot for that year. As a Lieutenant Colonel he commanded the Third Cadet Brigade in 1973-1974, and later served in the Australian Army Reserve retiring in 1984 after 30 years service.

An RSL member since 1968, he was elected State President of the Western Australian Branch of the Returned and Services League in 1998, serving in that capacity until 2001. He was appointed Honorary National RSL Vice President for Life and awarded RSL Life Membership in November 2001. In January 2003 he was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia for voluntary services to veterans and their families. Later that year Ken was awarded the Centenary Medal for similar services to veterans and their families.

Ken was an inaugural member of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Inc in 2002 and elected Chairman in May 2004, more than competently filling the role until May 2007.

He was made a life member at that time and continued to support the Association for the balance of his life.

The strength of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Inc was helped in every way by Ken Bladen and he will be sorely missed.

Tom Morris and Hellfire Pass

Konyu Cutting 1983 Konju Cutting 1983

Former prisoner of war Tom Morris revisited Thailand in 1983 as a member of the "Bamboo" tour to the Thailand-Burma railway. The visit to the Hellfire Pass area reminded Tom of his war-time experiences on the railway and he resolved to convince the Australian Government that the area could be presented as an historical site. In 1984, the Department of Arts, Heritage and Environment requested the Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC) to make a reconnaissance of the railway to select a suitable site.

Jim Appleby, an engineer with SMEC at the Khao Laem dam site on the upper Kwai Noi River, devoted much of his spare time investigating the more accessible parts of the abandoned railway. Jim compiled sketch maps and notes of his observations and passed these to the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce when SMEC staff left Thailand in early 1985.

Tom Morris Jim Appleby Tom Morris and Jim Appleby

Tom Morris continued his interest in the project through his work with the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. He unearthed many interesting documents relating to the railway and in particular to the Hellfire Pass area.

Extract from the address at dedication of HELLFIRE PASS MEMORIAL on the Thailand-Burma Railway by Colonel Sir Edward Dunlop AC, CMG, OBE, KStJ, 25 April 1987:

“Every imagined gesture arises from some initial creative thought followed by tangible support. The idea of this Hellfire Pass Memorial was that of Corporal T.J. (Tom) Morris following return visits to the railway. His enthusiasm took the matter through his Local Member of Parliament, Mr Ken Fry to the Minister of Arts, Heritage and Environment, Mr Barry Cohen, who later announced an Australian Government grant of $25,000. I have no doubt this was strongly backed by the Hon Tom Uren. Australian and Thai authorities agreed upon the project. The work has involved the co operation of the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Snowy Mountain Engineering Corporation and the Australia Thai Chamber of Commerce headed by the dynamic Ken Bradley. Also much is owed to Mr Jim Appleby senior resident Engineer at the Khao Laem Dam project. More money and effort will be required to maintain the project. Ian Gollings, RSL Australia, sent with me a cheque for $1000. Appropriately the memorial is not only in memory of those prisoners of war who died on railway construction but also to those Thais who risked their lives to supply money, food and medicines to those in such dire need. Very notable amongst them was the heroic Boon Pong Sirivijaphan, who, in his guise of a river trader saved a great many lives. I am deeply honoured that my name is associated with his in the ‘Weary’ Dunlop/Boon Pong Fellowship for Thailand Australia Medical Exchange. The fellowship honours all medical workers whose efforts saved many lives, as well as Thai helpers”.

The request by Tom Morris to the Australian Government concluded: "Would it be possible to have Hellfire Pass preserved as an historic site, dedicated to the memory of all our fellow PoWs and civilian slaves, of whom so much had been demanded in the construction of the Thailand-Burma railway?"

J.G. (Tom) Morris

Chairman’s report for 2018


2018 QUIET LION TOUR. Senior Vice Chairman Ian Holding, Secretary Krishna Vanderweide and Tour Leader David Piesse managed the 2018 Tour. Neil MacPherson was the travelling ex POW. Harry Martin travelled privately. Alan MacPherson assisted where required. Ian and David will provide this meeting with reports on the tour. Subsidizing juniors remains an objective.

2019 QUIET LION TOUR. Planning for the 2019 Tour is well under way with the tour team working to ensure another successful tour. Ian Holding will inform this meeting of the details.

MEETINGS. Committee meetings have been held as required and Ian Holding has been kind enough to host the meetings at his residence. WEB SITE. Roland Lockhart continues to carry out the technical side of managing the website. We owe him a debt of gratitude. The web site assists in generating and maintaining interest in the BTRMA and we now have regular queries which we answer or refer to a source of information. NEWSLETTER. Elizabeth Brennan collates the newsletter and Ian Holding continues to do a great job in printing and distribution. The newsletter has played a very important part in maintaining interest in the Association and the Tours.

The newsletter distribution is becoming increasingly wider.

SUCCESSION PLANNING. Our objective to constant rejuvenation and succession planning is proving effective and the long term success of our Association is assured, particularly the popularity of the Quiet Lion Tours. Nominations have been called for membership of the Committee and will be dealt with by this meeting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. To all committee members, office bearers and former POW’s, thank you for your ongoing dedication and support. A thank you for the ongoing support of:- the management and staff at Hollywood Hospital in providing us with these facilities to conduct our meetings and functions, particularly CEO Peter Mott, Director of Clinical Services Karen Gullick and Debra Taylor, Peel Health Campus CEO Doctor Margaret Sturdy and Mandurah RSL for sponsorship of Service Cadets, the Thailand-Burma Railway Centre (TBRC) founder Rod Beattie, Centre general manager Terry Manttan and Researcher Andrew Snow, Roland Lockhart for managing our Web Site and Flight World for flight booking services on tours.

Our Association remains committed to the objectives which were enunciated at our very first Annual Meeting and have been at the forefront of our every endeavour since. Our concentration on our objectives and our adherence to their scope has stood us in good stead. We have constantly developed and improved the Quiet Lion Tours to the point where they are recognised by all as historically accurate military tours with the addition of a measure of cultural and tourist experience. The extensive knowledge gathered by our tour team and our Thai guides, plus the presence of ex POWs provides a level of authenticity not generally available.

COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP AND OFFICE BEARERS. The current office bearers have all worked tirelessly for our cause. I continue to review my participation and find it satisfying to look after inquiries generated from the Web Site and carry out the Chairman’s role as required. Again, at Ian Holding’s request, I will continue as Chairman (subject to the agreement of this meeting). Ian remains very busy in his private vocation and in the primary organisation of the Quiet Lion Tour. He is happy to remain as Senior Vice Chairman with Neil MacPherson Vice Chairman, Krishna Vanderweide Secretary/Treasurer, David Piesse Tour Leader/co-tour organiser/Country Liaison, Elizabeth Brennan Newsletter collator, past Chairman Hugh Warden remains a good supporter and provider of wise counsel and it is pleasing to note that Hugh was recently made a member of the Order of Australia (OAM), mainly for his work in the Primary Industry area but also for a number of worthy activities in serving the community (including the BTRMA) and Peter Winstanley as Special Researcher. Allen MacPherson remains on the Committee and is an asset on the Tours. Arthur Anstis has now retired and we are grateful for his help over the years as Treasurer. It is recommended that Arthur be appointed a Life Member of the BTRMA.

The formal election of the Committee will take place later in the meeting. I look forward to remaining as Chairman for a further year should that be in the interests of the organisation. Thanks to all Committee members for their contribution to another successful year. It is pleasing that all current members have indicated their willingness to remain in the team for another year. I wish all members and their family’s good health for the coming year and another successful Quiet Lion Tour in 2018 and thank you all for your continued support.

Eric Wilson.


Places are still available on the QUIET LION TOUR 2019 which departs Perth on 19th April 2019 and returns on 30th April 2019. If you are considering taking part in this most interesting and informative tour you are advised to make a booking now.

The political situation is stable, the new King settled in and the Military control accepted. No demonstrations are occurring nor are any expected.

There are no health threats current and this is likely to remain over the period of the tour.

The Quiet Lion Tours have always featured High School students from around Australia who are sponsored by various charitable and service organisations. The focus on students is to celebrate the work done by the Doctors on the railway and to perpetuate the message that “we may forgive but we will never forget” the horrific story of the Burma Thailand Railway. The tour normally includes survivors of the railway construction, but this is subject to the health of the POW’s and is not guaranteed.

The Tour is for 11 days (10 nights) and the focus is on the story of the Australia PoWs, their camps and the Australian doctors culminating in the ANZAC Day Dawn Service in Hellfire Pass and the Memorial Service in the Cemetery at Kanchanaburi. Many sites of Prisoner of War camps, the Bridge on the River Kwai, hospital sites and other areas of interest are visited as part of the tour.

Descendants of ex-POWs who have become authorities on the Thai Burma Railway travel on the tour and provide commentaries in addition to English speaking Thai Guides.

The Quiet Lion Tours commenced in 1985 and travel to Thailand to honour Sir Edward “Weary” Dunlop, all other Doctors who tended the sick and all the Prisoners of War who were on the Burma Thailand Railway. The tours are operated by the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, a non-profit group dedicated to preserving the memory of those who toiled on the Death Railway as Prisoners of War of the Japanese.

Several days are spent in Bangkok for tourist, shopping opportunities and to acclimatise to the local weather conditions.  Accommodation comprises of 3 nights at a top hotel in Bangkok, 1 night at a riverside resort in Kanchanaburi and 6 nights at the Home Phu Toey Resort (on the River Kwai near Hellfire Pass) which includes the Weary Dunlop Peace Park.

Arrangements can be made for travel from any State in Australia. In the Case of Brisbane, the flights are via Sydney.

Itinerary and associated information details are available on the BTRMA web site.

Interested people should contact:

Tour Organiser Ian Holding on M 0418832281 email:

Tour Leader David Piesse on Tel 08 9447 7505

See Booking Conditions on the BTRMA web site.

Mr Hugh Warden awarded OAM

awarded to Mr Hugh Wynter WARDEN, Fremantle WA 6160

For service to primary industry, particularly to livestock management, and to the community.

Service includes:
Managing Director, Australian Livestock Management Services, since 1995.
Consultant, Stud Merino Breeders' Association WA.
Inductee, Australian Sheep and Lamb Industry Roll of Honour, LambEx (Annual Lamb Industry Conference), 2010.
Royal Agricultural Society WA: Member, Wool and Shearing Committee, 1995-1997, Member, Cattle Committee 199.
Former Board Member Meat Program Partnership with Agriculture WA, Councillor 1995-2009.
Councillor-in-Charge of History, Strategic Planning, Trade Cattle and Led Cattle. Member since 1973.
Wesfarmers: Board Member Wesfarmers Rural 1985-1994,Stud Livestock Marketing and Export Development Manager 1989-1994
Livestock Manager 1976-1989. Stock Manager 1973-1976.
Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association: Co-founder 2002. Chair and Vice-Chair.
Counsellor, Salvation Army Care Line until 2015.



Chairman of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, Eric Wilson OAM APM, attended the Memorial Service for ex Prisoners of War conducted by Mount Lawley Senior High School at Kings Park on 4th May 2018. A wreath was laid on behalf of the BTRMA.

The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, the Ex-Prisoners of War Association and the Mount Lawley Senior High School have been associated with this function for two decades,commencing in 1998. Mount Lawley Senior High School has been regularly represented on the Quiet Lion Tour to Thailand for Anzac Day by students of the School.

At the 2018 Memorial Service, Mount Lawley S.H.S. Chaplain Mr Andrew Paul referred to the first two students to attend the tour in 1998, Erin St Duke and Katherine Cooper, and he quoted sections of Erin’s address to a school assembly on her return. The Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association value the relationship between the Association and the Mount Lawley Senior High School.

On a beautiful, sunny day, a large contingent of people that included veterans Arthur Leggett (President) along with Syd Shaw, John Gilmour, Norm Eaton (who traveled with family up from Bunbury) and Professor Alex Kerr assembled at the Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial in Kings Park on 4th May, 2018. The service (the 21st year) was coordinated and supported admirably by the Principal, Staff and Students from Mount Lawley Senior High School.

The Commanding Officer of 11/28 Battalion LT COL R. Colligan and RSM, Warrant Officer Class One Guy Kesby plus MAJ J Kurtz, (standing in for the Commanding Officer of 16th Battalion RWAR, LTCOL C Watennan) and RSM, Warrant Officer Class One Carl Hemberg, represented the Australian Defence Forces.

The ceremony included a wonderful choir, concert band and bugler, Gemma Sabbadini. NCOs and Soldiers from 11/28 RWAR mounted the catafalque party and were resplendent in their new Service Dress.

School Principal, Lesley Street, addressed the assembled guests with an excellent presentation opening the proceedings by stating, "It is a privilege to be part of this important ceremony here today. We come together to pay tribute to the almost 40,000 Australians who have been held as prisoners of war over the years from the Boer War to Korea. Here in the peaceful surroundings of Kings Park reflect and commemorate our exPOWs whose members, through time are fading. We especially welcome those POWs who I know are here with us this afternoon – our own Arthur Leggett, Norm Eaton, John Gilmour, Syd Shaw and Professor Alex Kerr”.
“This ceremony is dedicated to all who became prisoners of war while fighting for our freedom whether at Gallipoli, on the Western front, Crete, Italy, North Africa, Singapore, New Guinea, Borneo, Japan, on the Thai – Burma Railway and Hellfire Pass, or Korea to name just some of the 58 countries where Australians have been held over the years.

Today we reflect and honour not only on their courage but also the other attributes displayed by these fine Australians their heroism, sacrifice and mateship which were the defining characteristics of the prisoners of war. John Howard when Prime Minster said of the POW's - "These men turned the reality of  atrocity and suffering into an affirmation of Australian courage and resilience”. “They are ANZACS who in captivity triumphed over adversity, displaying humour, resourcefulness and mateship in profoundly difficult circumstances”.

Peter Cosgrove said of every POW – "You hold a special place in the heart of this nation. And that is true of all of us here today who gather to honour our Prisoners of War -they do hold a special place in our hearts”.

“To the POWs, both those present today and those who are not well enough to attend the ceremony, I say to you that I am confident that in the years to come the Australian people will remember and honour you as will the youth of Australia but I know without a doubt that today's students and staff from MLSHS and future students and staff will remember and honour all those who have been held prisoner. We will remember the sacrifices you made, the things that you endured and the mates that you lost. Rest assured we will never forget you"

The service concluded with Tea, Coffee and light refreshments supplied by the catering students at MLSHS - including a packet of Anzac Cookies.

2/4th Machine Gun Battalion

Western Australia's 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion was raised at the end of 1940 as one of the support units for the ill-fated 8th Division. Formed with men from across the state, they all came together at Northam military camp, east of Perth, where they carried out their initial training. In July 1941 the 2/4th moved to Adelaide and as more of the 8th Division was deployed "up north", by October it was in Darwin with the 23rd Brigade. The division's other two brigades were in Malaya and Singapore and the 2/4th was to follow.

Told of their move just before Christmas, the battalion left Darwin on 30 December, sailing via Port Moresby. Following a Japanese attack on Rabaul, New Britain, the convey turned around and sailed to Sydney and then Fremantle. Sailing under escort the convoy finally reached Singapore at the end of January 1942. It was not long before the 2/4th was in action. By this time the Japanese had captured Malaya and were preparing to attack Singapore. Similarly, the British were desperately preparing their defences and the battalion's companies were sent where they were needed: B Company was sent to the British Manchester Fusiliers, constructing weapons pits around the Naval Base; C Company went to support the 44th Indian Brigade on the west and south-west coast of the island; D Company supported the 22nd Brigade on the north-west coast; and A Company was in the 8th Division's reserve, close to the island centre.

After days of air raids, the Japanese attacked Singapore on 8 February - crossing the Johore Strait and attacking along the 22nd Brigade's front and the 27th Brigade near the Causeway. Deployed to different units, the 2/4th's companies were quickly in action but by 10 February the Japanese had captured the island's west coast. Five days later the British forces were pushed back to a defensive line protecting the city. However, the battle was virtually over and on 15 February Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival surrendered Singapore. The machine-gunners suffered heavily. Between 8 and 15 February the 2/4th had 137 men killed or missing, 106 men wounded, and 24 described as having "shell shock". These casualties constituted almost one-third of the battalion. Worse was to follow, with the battalion held in Japanese prisoner of war camps for the next three years.

Following the surrender, the 2/4th was concentrated in Changi gaol. From Changi the Japanese took drafts of men to work throughout their Greater South East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. Some of the battalion were sent to Borneo, while others worked on the Burma-Thai Railway or in Japan. By the war's end, another 263 men from the battalion had died as prisoners. The 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion was an Australian Army unit raised for service with the all volunteer Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during the Second World War. Formed in late 1940 as part of the 8th Division, the battalion was established to provide direct fire support to the division's infantry brigades. It was the fourth, and last, such unit raised within the 2nd AIF. The unit's personnel were largely drawn from the state of Western Australia and after formation, the battalion concentrated near Perth for basic individual training before moving to the Adelaide Hills to complete more advance manouevres.

In late 1941, amidst concerns of war in the Pacific, the unit was deployed north to Darwin in the Northern Territory, where they undertook garrison duties in the weeks following Japan's entry into the war. Following Japanese landings in Malaya, the 2/4th embarked from Darwin and were transferred to Malaya, arriving in Singapore in the final days of the fighting on the peninsula. In the wake of the withdrawal of British and Commonwealth forces to the island, the battalion was hastily deployed in support of the two Australian brigades—the 22nd and 27th Brigades—in the north-western sector of the island.

During the initial Japanese landing, elements of the battalion were heavily engaged around the landing beaches but they were outnumbered and over the course of the week the defenders were pushed back towards the centre of the island, towards the city of Singapore. They suffered heavy casualties during this time, before subsequently becoming prisoners of war after the fall of Singapore. Meanwhile, a detachment of about 100 men from the battalion, who had been left behind in Australia when it deployed to Singapore, also took part in the fighting on Java. After a brief campaign, the majority of these personnel were taken into captivity when the Allied forces were overwhelmed around Buitenzorg in mid-March 1942, although some attempted to fight on as guerillas.

Eventually these men were either killed or captured; prisoners remained in Japanese captivity until the end of the war in August 1945. During the three-and-a-half years they were held by the Japanese, members of the 2/4th were sent to prison camps around the Pacific, where they were used as slave labour and subjected to harsh conditions and extreme brutality. After the war, the surviving members of the battalion were returned to Australia but the 2/4th was not re-raised.

Harold David Martin

Ex Prisoner of War of the Japanese and survivor of the sinking of the “hellship” Rakuyō Maru, Harold David Martin again attended the Anzac service services at Hellfire Pass and Kanchanaburi in 2018. The following is his story:

Harold David Martin Service Number WX204 of 2/10 Ordnance Work Shops was one of the Prisoners of War who survived the sinking of the “hellship” Rakuyō Maru on the morning of 12 September 1944. Harold was born at Kanowna, Western Australia on January 1, 1917. Enlisted 11 Dec 1940 enlistment depot 164 Bourke Street, Kalgoorlie, WA. Address at enlistment Claremont WA. Next of kin Emma Martin. Date of discharge 17 May 1945. Rank Private. Post at discharge Second 10th Ordnance Workshop Company. After training the unit embarked Sydney 10 Jan1942. The unit was landed from transports at Borneo and taken from there to Singapore in “pig-boats”* (see below). Disembarked Singapore 26 Jan 1942.

An expanded version of the travel to Singapore is mentioned in DonWall’s book. He stated ‘In all likelihood he (Private Martin sailed for Singapore with many others on the Aquatania. That ship sailed initially from Port Moresby 4 January then to Sydney. Left Sydney 10 January direct to Fremantle arriving 15 January. Left Fremantle 16 January bound for Singapore. Short of Singapore, probably in the Sunda Straits on 20/21 January transhipped to Dutch small vessels (6)* and moved into Singapore. Soon after landing the group was sent up country in Johore but shortly after returned to Singapore and set up their workshop at the Hume Pipe Works. They remained there till Feb 8th when the works were shelled and they were in Singapore until the capitulation of Feb 15th.

They were sent by the Japanese to the Changi P.O.W. camp and were there for three months. They were employed in the building of a Japanese memorial in Raffles Square in place of the Raffles monument which was pulled down. While at Changi they were fairly well treated by the Japanese regular troops who were the guards but were warned by them that when they were sent up country the treatment would not be good as there were Koreans in charge of prisoners. They were eventually sent to the Thailand Burma railway. Martin was said to be driving a truck at Singapore.

According to the Australian War Memorial, Private Harold David Martin was a POW in Thailand who was returned to Australia after the sinking of the Rakuyo Maru and was discharged on 17 May 1945 as a recovered casualty. He was in A Force. Note:‘The men on the Rakuyo Maru were all ex-Burma men (that is A Force plus Williams and Black Forces)”. They were at Changi POW camp for ‘three months’. A Force left Singapore in May 1942 and worked along the Railway from the Burma end (Kilo 0 Thanbyuzayat).

Martin was at Kilo 118 (Kami (Upper) Songkurai) at one stage. All survivors of the Railway, including A Force (that had started from Burma), were evacuated from the Thailand end of the Railway some time after the Railway was completed on 17 October 1943. A Force men working on the Railway were passing through the area of the F Force camp of Kami (Upper) Songkurai at Kilo 118. (It is noted in DonWall’s book that A Force’s Commander, Brigadier Varley, had himself gone beyond this point, to Kilo 133 Camp (Neike), by October 1943.)

Harold Martin was among POWs who had returned from the Burma Railway and were on the Japanese transport ship Rakuyo Maru headed for Japan when it was torpedoed by the USS Sealion II on 12 September 1944. He was picked up three days later by another submarine, the USS Pampanito, and subsequently returned to Australia. The highest-ranking Australian POW on the Railway, Brigadier Arthur Varley was apparently machine-gunned in the water by the Japanese. Some POWs including Doctor Rowley Richards, were rescued by the Japanese and taken to Japan, whilst others including Martin, were rescued by US submarines. In November 1944—more than one year after the Railway had been completed—the Australian public learnt through the rescued POWs of many details of the capture, ordeals and fate of the men on the Burma Thailand Railway.

Harold returned home to his wife, Molly, and young son, Ray, in late 1944, and their family was blessed with four more children. Background to the sinking of the Rakuyo Maru. In May 1942 the Japanese began transferring POWs by sea. Similar to treatment on the Bataan Death March, prisoners were crammed into cargo holds with little air. Many died due to asphyxia, starvation or dysentery, some POWs became delirious and unresponsive in their environment of heat, humidity and lack of oxygen, food, and water. These unmarked prisoner transports were targeted as enemy ships by Allied submarines, more than 20,000 Allied POWs died at sea when the transport ships carrying them were attacked by Allied submarines and aircraft. A force of 2,300 prisoners commanded by Brigadier A. L. Varley left Singapore on 6th September 1944. These men had previously worked on the Burma-Thailand Railway. In the group were 649 Australians who embarked on the Rakuyo Maru. Off East Hainan Island the Rakuyo Maru was torpedoed and sunk at around 5:00am on 12/09/1944 by US submarine Sealion and 503 AIF, 33 RAN and 7 RAAF personnel were lost. 80 survivors were rescued by USS Pampanito SS 38.

The log of the USS Pampanito recorded: "1605. A bridge lookout sighted some men on a raft, so stood by small arms, and closed to investigate. 1634. The men were covered with oil and filth and we could not make them out.... They were shouting but we couldn't understand what they were saying, except made out words "Pick us up please." Called rescue party on deck and took them off the raft. There were about fifteen (15) British and Australian Prisoner of War survivors on this raft from a ship sunk the night of 11-12 September 1944. We learned they were en-route from Singapore to Formosa and that there were over thirteen hundred on the sunken ship. After four days of drifting on makeshift rafts they were in extremely bad shape. Most were covered with oil from the sunken tanker, and had long since used up what little food and water they had with them. Slowly, the story of what had occurred was unveiled by the survivors brought aboard Pampanito.

* “Hell ship” – A hell ship is a ship with extremely unpleasant living conditions or with a reputation for cruelty among the crew”. The crew of Pampanito spent four hours rescuing as many survivors as could be found. Volunteer teams were formed to get the almost helpless men aboard. Some of Pampanito's crew dived into the water with lines to attach to the rafts so they could be brought in close enough for others, on deck and on the saddle tanks, to carefully lift the men aboard. Crew members swam out to rescue the POWs, leaving the relative safety of the sub and risking being left behind if the boat had to dive. It was a tense and emotional period as the shocked crew worked to save as many of the oil soaked survivors as possible. During the rescue many of the crew came topside to help. If an Imperial Japanese plane attacked at that time they would have been left on deck as Pampanito dived to avoid attack.

During the five-day trip to Saipan, the nearest Allied port, the survivors were berthed in the crew's quarters amidships and on the empty torpedo skids and bunks in the after torpedo room where they were cared for by the crew. Some of the survivors were critically ill and in need of medical attention. Submarines carried no doctor on board, so the monumental task of treating these men became the responsibility of the only man on board with training in medicine, Pharmacist's Mate First Class Maurice L. Demers who, worked around the clock. dangerously close to total exhaustion.

A message was sent to Pearl Harbor relaying what had happened with a request that more submarines be called in to continue the rescue. The only other boats in the area were Queenfish and Barb; they were ordered in as soon as possible. Both boats were 450 miles west in pursuit of a convoy, but when they received the new orders they dropped the track and headed full speed to the rescue area. Queenfish and Barb arrived at 0530 on the 17th to begin their search for rafts among the floating debris. Just after 1300 they located several rafts and began to pick up the few men still alive. They only had a few hours to search before a typhoon moved in, sealing the fate of those survivors not picked up in time. Before the storm hit, Queenfish found 18 men, and Barb found 14 men. The boats headed on to Saipan after a final search following the storm revealed no further survivors.

Of the 1,318 POWs on the Rakuyo Maru sunk by Sealion, 159 had been rescued by the four submarines: 73 on Pampanito, 54 on Sealion and the 32 found by Queenfish and Barb. It was later learned that the Imperial Japanese had rescued 136 for a total of 295 survivors. Those picked up by the Japanese were sent to the Kawasaki group of factories, and Moji and Sakata prison camps. The story of the sinking of the HMAS Perth, the Burma Thailand Railway, the “Hell” Ships’, the sinking of the Rakuro Maru and the ordeal of the Prisoners of War of the Japanese is one of the more horrific of the World War11 events.

Official Japanese records tell a grim story: of 55,279 Allied POWs transported by sea, 10,853 drowned, including 3,632 Americans. At least 500 perished at sea from disease and thirst. The destination of 90 percent of those vessels was Japan. 106 members of HMAS Perth crew died as POWs. Of a crew of 681 only 214 returned to Australia.

Cranston Albury McEachern

Cranston Albury McEachern (1905-1983), army officer and solicitor, born September 9, 1905 at Dongara, Western Australia, Educated at Brisbane Grammar School, Commissioned in the Australian Field Artillery, Militia, in 1924; and in 1936 he was commanding the 11th Field Brigade as a major (1929).

In February 1937 McEachern was promoted to lieutenant colonel. Following the outbreak of World War II, he gave up his law practice and on 1 May 1940 joined the Australian Imperial Force as a major. He regained his lieutenant colonelcy in October on being appointed to command the 2/4th Anti-Tank Regiment, which deployed to Malaya (Malaysia) with the 8th Division. The unit saw action against the Japanese from 27 December 1941 until the surrender on 15 February 1942. McEachern’s superior, Brigadier C. A. Callaghan, reported that, throughout the operations, he was ‘an inspiration to his Regiment owing to his outstanding ability, command and control which were exercised without regard for personal safety’. From 6 February he commanded the divisional artillery in Callaghan’s absence. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (1947).

In captivity McEachern was assigned to command the Australian part (2220 men) of ‘D’ Force, sent in March 1943 to work on the Burma-Thailand Railway. At the Hintok Road camp, Thailand, he commanded the whole formation plus Dunlop Force (when Lt Colonel Dunlop agreed to concentrate on medical administration), some 5000 Australian and British troops. His men worked on the ‘Pack of Cards Bridge’ and ‘Hell Fire Pass’. He was promoted to colonel and temporary brigadier with effect from April 1942. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, he was the senior Allied officer in Thailand. He took charge of repatriating approximately 30 000 troops.

Claiming to the Japanese an authority he did not hold, he persuaded Japanese officers not to comply with Allied orders to concentrate their former prisoners in the Bangkok area. He knew that the already emaciated and malnourished soldiers would have been marched long distances, sometimes more than one hundred miles (161 km), and hundreds might have died. In November 1945 he returned to Australia. For his services while a prisoner of war he was mentioned in despatches.

He transferred to the Reserve of Officers on 19 February 1946 as an honorary brigadier. McEachern resumed his legal practice; Cranston McEachern & Co. Honorary colonel (1966-70) of the Australian Cadet Corps, Northern Command.

He continued in full-time legal practice until his death on 15 October 1983 at Bridgeman Downs, Brisbane and was survived by his wife and their daughter and two sons, and the son of his first marriage.



D Force. Under joint command of British Lt Col G.G. Carpenter and Australian Lt Col Mc Eachern, 5000 POWs, 2780 British and 2220 Australian departed Changi 14th to 23rd March 1943 for Ban Pong. The Australians were organised into three battalions, "S' "T' "U", commanded by Lt Col McEachern, Major E.J Quick and Capt Reg Newton. This mixed force were spread over an area including Tarsao, Hintock, Konyu and Kinsayok and some worked on the notorious Hellfire Pass cutting.

Albany Veterans honoured

Mr Rick Wilson, Federal Member for O’Connor and the Hon Dan Tehan MP Minister of Veteran affairs recently hosted a reception at Mr Wilson’s Albany office for three survivors of World War II:

Mr Neil MacPherson, a survivor of the Burma Thailand Railway and a slave worker in Japan;
Mr Harold Martin, an ex-Prisoner of War of the Japanese and survivor of the sinking of the hellship Rakuyō Maru onthe morning of 12 September 1944;
and Mr Murray Maxton who flew in a Lancaster aircraft with the RAAF Bomber Command in 1944 over occupied Europe during World War II and was honoured by France for bravery with the Legion of Honour.

Photo L>R: The Hon Dan Tehan MP Minister of Veteran Affairs, Mr Harold Martin, Mr Rick Wilson Federal Member for O’Connor and Mr Neil MacPherson.

Congratulations to Neil MacPherson on his 95th Birthday

Over 30 family and friends gathered in the RAAF Retirement Village Albany on Saturday 13 May to join Neil in the celebrating his 95th birthday. The guests present included centenarian Harold Martin, Local Member of Parliament Peter Watson and his wife Diane Wolfer, who wrote the books The Lighthouse Girl and The Light Horse Boy. Those people gathered were supplied with the usual Heineken and tasty finger food prepared by the local village residents.

Gypsy O’Dea, Neil’s granddaughter, spoke of Neil as a tremendous role model for the whole family and his great strength and endurance. A good time was had by all Neil with Harold Martin and Murray Maxon were also invited to a small afternoon tea at the Federal Member for O’Connor, Rick Wilson’s, office. Murray Maxon, is a 97-year-old veteran Fighter Pilot who flew over France with his brother in the same plane, both awarded The Croix de guerre by France.

The Minister for Veterans Affairs Dan Tehan was visiting Albany and they had afternoon tea together. Neil was very chuffed with this afternoon tea.

Happy Birthday Neil

2017 ANZAC Day Wreath Laying Ceremony at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery. Address by Neil MacPherson

2017 ANZAC Day Wreath Laying Ceremony at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery. Address by Neil MacPherson WX 16572 2/2nd Pioneer

Good morning,
On behalf of all Ex-POWs, I welcome you to this peaceful location at the Kanchanburi CemeteryThailand on this dayo f remembrance for the Australian dead of all wars in which our nation has been involved. The first Australians to rrive on the Burma Thailand railway in October 1942 were in Green Force led by Major Green, Commanding Officer of the 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion a West Australian unit. They were also the first Australian prisoners to arrive on the Burma end of the railway, followed later in the month by my group in Williams Force under Lt Colonel John Williams of the 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion.

Camps had been cunningly established by the Japanese every 10 kilometres along he surveyed railway trace, this meant no time was wasted travelling from camps to work sites. The huts were well constructed to withstand the wild weather encountered during the wet season. Generally they were built with split bamboo platforms running the length of the huts with a central passageway, the roof was made of atap, a home for the rats that infested the huts. Mention should be made here that this type of accomodation was not universal along the length of the railway – for instance at Hintock in Thailand the prisoners were housed in tents that were soon damaged by the wild weather.

Our group of 800 was made up of mostly of Australians, a few Americans and Dutch captured with us in Java . The first Australians to start work on the Thailand side were captured in Java and formed Dunlop Force led by Colonel Dunlop, a surgeon from the 2nd second Casualty Clearing Station. In Burma the several groups under oveall charge of Australian Senior officer, Brigadier Varley, were known by the name of their leader. Our Force was known as Williams Force led by Lt Colonel John Williams Commanding Officer of the 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion.

Anderson Force was led by Lt Colonel Anderson V.C. On the Thailand end of the railway, apart from Dunlop Force which came from Java, most Australians were part of the 8th Division and were known as D Force and F Force. In Burma we were initially used to build embankments and excavate small cuttings. There was no great pressure from the Japanese Engineers - however this soon changed as the work got behind schedule and by May 1943 the Speedo iniaitive started. Beatings were common place. Australian officers in charge of work parties were especially noted for their courageous actions to protect the men under their control, but they were beaten for their efforts .

Major Bruce Hunt of F.Force was an an outstanding surgeon. He was also one of the most able and efficient Camp Administrators on the railway. He did a lot to maintain discipline and lift sagging morale pf the sick prisoners. In the early months, despite long hours and insufficient food, we gradually accustomed ourselves to a diet of mainly rice. We lacked the essentials such as meat, vegetables & fruit so malnutrition soon set in and as the wet season arrived with all its pestilence and disease the work hours were extended. Within 12 months of us starting work, diseases such as Cholera, Dysentery, Malaria, Berri Berri and leg ulcers, worsened by malnutrition and long hours of labour, would decimate our force. The morning sick parades lengthened to the extent that the Japanese Engineers had to press many of these sick men into the under-manned work parties. At the end of long work shifts men would return to camp and their first destinaton was the sick ward to see their mates and cheer them up.

During the construction of the railway it contained along its length and beyond hundreds of labour camps - all were bad, some worse than others - not one could be called good. Japanese camp commandants in these camps and in the transit camps were mostly tyrants, meting out punishments for minor infringements.

In early 1943 we in Williams & Anderson Force were selected to lay the sleepers and rails from Thanbyuzayat through to Konkoita where the two ends of the railway were to be connected- a daunting task. It was heavy work carrying the heavy sleepers and long lengths of rail. By September 1943 Williams Force of 800 had been reduced to a work party of 300 skeletons of men. The Japanese started moving prisoners from Burma into camps in Thailand. These prisoners were concentrated in two camps - Tamuan and Tamarkan, as this camp here on the River next to the bridge and this cemetary was then known.

Some prisoners were left in isolated camps back in Burma to carry out maintenance work. On arrival in Tamarkan the prisoners who arrived from Burma were astonished to see the variety of food available here compared to the barren jungle in Burma. Thailand was always known as the food bowl of Asia, Despite this abundance the Japanese authorities refused to provide sufficient rations to meet the daily needs of the men who were mere mere shadows of their pre prisoner life. Thank you for your attention, may I wish you a safe return to your homes.

Neil MacPherson

Annual ex-Prisoner of War Memorial Service in Kings Park

The memorial service conducted by the Mount Lawley Senior High School was held at the Ex-POW Memorial, May Drive, Kings Park on Friday 5th May 2017 at 1:00pm.
In 1997 the students of Mount Lawley Senior High School adopted the Ex-Prisoners of War Association's Memorial, Kings Park. This ceremony is held as an annual commemorative service. 2017 was the 21st year Mount Lawley Senior High School has been involved with the service.
As in previous years the Principal, staff and students from Mount Lawley Senior High School assisted to conduct the service and provide the band, choir, bugler and logistic support for the event. Many Ex-Prisoner of War Association members attended to pay their respects as well as a large group of invited guests including surviving veterans and representatives of kindred associations.
Afternoon tea was provided and the weather was fine, a beautiful sunny day. The Mount Lawley Senior High School band and choir entertained guests prior to the ceremony and in the course of the ceremony hymns and the Australian song were presented by the school. Surviving ex-prisoners of war present were Association President Arthur Leggett with John Gilmour and Syd Shaw.

Eric Wilson, David Piesse and Peter Winstanly of the BTRMA attended. The number of veterans left is rapidly thinning and it was stressed that we need to ensure we remember those no longer with us.

In this regard, the following is an abridged version of an article from The Australian newspaper:

"They're fading away before our eyes, these proud old men who gave so much for Australia. Fewer than 200 of them are left and one sad day soon there will be none at all. Some still can't bring themselves to speak about what happened after they became prisoners of the Japanese or Germans in World War II to forge a very different Anzac legend to that of Gallipoli.
Their war turned into an elemental struggle against starvation, disease and brutality on the Burma railway and in slave labour camps under the Japanese, or to survive the death throes of a blood-soaked Nazi Reich.
But the underpinnings were the same: mateship, sacrifice, endurance. Time, though, waits for no one and new government figures show that only 195 of the 32,000 Australian military personnel taken prisoner in World War II - including 61 female army nurses - were living in January, with an average age of 94.
That number will have slipped further in the lead-up to ANZAC Day. The fade out of Australia's World War II paws points poignantly to how close we are to losing the last living links to the great generation that waged that seismic conflict. Veteran numbers are in freefall. Of the 990,000 Australians who joined up between 1939 and 1945, only 19,600 remain of those who saw active war service, according to the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
About 7500 died in the 12 months to June 30 last year, though this included spouses.With an average age of 93 for the surviving World War II vets, the DVA's demographic modelling assumes an annual attrition rate of 5000 through this decade.
By 2020, there will be achingly few still with us. The ex-POWs are generally older because most were captured early in the war in the disasters in Greece and Crete at the hands of the Germans, and in the dark days of 1942, after Japanese forces seized Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, the then Dutch East Indies, the Philippines and menaced Australia from New Guinea and at sea”.

Mount Lawley Senior High School have travelled on Quiet Lion Tours to Thailand for some years with generous support by the Ex-Prisoners of War Association, the school, parents and the Burma Thailand Memorial Association.
The following students have toured: Olivia Williams, Clancy Davidson, Cale Wilcox, Nicola Bower, Johanna Battista, Monroe Massa, Alex Scudder, Emma Bromham, Andrea Leonard, Nicolas Hortense, Kate Prast and Emma Giuffre.

National News – Courtesy of Barbed Wire and Bamboo periodical

Upcoming 2017 Commemoration Services:(as advised by the office of The Hon Dan Tehan MP)
25 August 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Milne Bay Australian War Memorial, Canberra
14 September Anniversary Australian Peacekeepers and Peacemakers Anzac Parade, Canberra
26 September Centenary of the Battle of Polygon Wood Passchendaele Zonnebeke, Belgium
23 October 75th Anniversary of the start of El Alamein Australian War Memorial, Canberra
31 October Centenary of the Battle of Beersheba, Sinai Palestine Campaign Be'er Sheva, Israel
2 November 75th Anniversary of Kokoda and the beachheads Australian War Memorial, Canberra
DVA Ex-POW Statistics as at 6 January 2017
Current Residential Location Ex-POW EuropeEx-POW JapanEx-POW Korea
NSW 25403
VIC 21230
QLD 14221
SA 781
WA 13101
TAS 230
NT 200
ACT 300
Overseas 010
Total WW2 Ex-POWs remaining: 194
WW2 deaths since Sept 2016 report: 23
Total Korean Ex-POWs remaining: 6
Korean deaths since Sept 2016 report: 0
Average Age of remaining Ex-POWs:
Europe 94.9 years old
Japan 95.6 years old
Korea 88.5 years old

2017 Quiet Lion Tour Report

2017 QLT Tour group

2017 Quiet Lion Tour Report

The annual pilgrimage to the River Kwai took place from Monday the 17th of April to the 28th of April 2017 for Perth travelers. (Eastern States travelers returned late on the evening of the 27th of April). Day one was the travelling component.

Day Two

After a 7:00am wake-up call followed by our first buffet breakfast in Thailand and a short briefing of the carers for our students on tour we headed for Bang Pa-in to visit the Royal Summer Palace. This is the site of a timber palacethat was built over four hundred years ago. The palace and its gardens create a magical wonderland of a bygone era in the Kingdom of Thailand and to be able to step back into the history of Thailand.
After an hour at Bang Pa-In we traveled further north to Ayutthaya, the ancient capital of Thailand prior to 1767AD when it was abandoned after wars with the invading armies from Burma. This area is now an historic park under the charter of the United Nations. A talk there from Ake (our Thai tour Guide) on the significance of the historic precinct and where it fitted into Thailand’s story.
Our next move for the afternoon was on to a pier closer back towards Bangkok where we boarded a ferry for the return trip down the Chayo Phraya River to the River City pier in the centre of Bangkok itself. This is a delightful trip for our travellers to relax and get to know each other after flights the previous day from different parts of Australia.
We arrived back at the Royal Benja Hotel around 5:30pm and after a clean-up we had our welcome dinner with all our travelers together as the Quiet Lion Tour 2017. We laid a few ground rules while the group was together and handed out the shirts and caps. Those that needed their beauty sleep moved back to their rooms, Ian and I took a group of students and their carers to Terminal 21, a themed shopping centre which caters for the younger shopper.

Day Three

Six thirty wake up call, bags out, breakfast and on the bus at seven thirty and on our way to Nakom Pathom, the site of Phra Pathom Chedi, the tallest stupa in the world. The significance of Nakom Pathom is that before WWII there was a medical outpost here so the Japanese in their wisdom decided it would be a good place to put a hospital, which they did.
It had a capacity of 10,000 beds able to handle all the sick and injured returning from off the Railway and also from Burma. There was a lot of innovative surgery and treatments developed there that save a tremendouslot of lives and relieved a lot of suffering.
From here we move to Nong Pladuk, the place where the Railway to Burma left the main railway line that ran to Singapore. This was also known as the 0 kilometre point where all measurements were taken from on Thailand side of Three Pagodas Pass. There was a large prison camp in this area along with workshops, foundries, fuel refineries. Many British POWs were here as Britain had a big dependence on railways and the obvious choice was to collectexperienced railway workers.
A few kilometres away is the town of Ban Pong, the railway station where the POWs got off the train from Singapore on their journey north up the railway line to their various places of work. A few of the earlier work forces were lucky enough to have road transport up to Tarsao and beyond. The rest that arrived after the monsoons set in had no choice but to walk as the tracks became impassable and turned into mud. This was extremely difficult as the later forces were also suffering from malaria, dysentery, malnutrition and all the tropical diseases known apart from cholera which was yet to come.
We leave the main road and travel to the Mae Klong River east of Kanchanaburi to a camp site known as Tha Maung, this was the main transit camp for POWs travelling up River and for those returning down River. At some stage nearly every POW had contact with this camp, even those returning from Burma. The whole of the camp area is now market gardens for the produce of fresh fruit and vegetables for the Tha Muang and Kanchanaburi city area. This was one of the more pleasant camps to have spent some time in. Food was more plentiful and the pressure of work had eased considerably.
Next place to visit was the Bridge on the River Kwai and lunch at Tida Loa's River Kwai Restaurant. After lunch there was a chance to walk over the bridge.
The tour is starting to come together very well as we have seen some DVDs on our way out from Bangkok. We took an opportunity to visit TBRC (Rod Beattie’s Thailand Burma Railway Centre) to let them know we were in the area and then to Pung Waan  Kanchanaburi Resort for a swim, welcome dinner and Karaoke.

Day Four

Breakfast, bags out, group photo at the front of Pung Waan Resort then out to the Chungkai Cutting for an explanation of how cuttings were built
The visit to the Chungkai War Cemetery was well received with time for contemplation walking amongst the headstones. From here we went to TBRC to wait for the train to take us over the Wampo Viaduct and back to Tam Krasea for lunch and waiting to watch the train return across the viaduct on return to Bangkok. When lunch was finished it was back on the bus to head up to highway 323 with a monkey stop on the way. We headed to the Pung Waan River Kwai Resort which was the site of the Tarsao hospital camp and a large Japanese Railway headquarters camp.
This was the only prisoner of war camp that named their cemeteries, three cemeteries were associated with the Tarsao camp and hospital. Number one, St George's with 206 (19 Australian) graves. Number two, (St Luke's) with 558 graves (120 Australians) and Number three (cholera) with 52 graves (9 Australian). A fourth un-named cemetery had 23 graves.

Of the many atrocities which occurred on the Burma Thailand Railway one was at this camp and has been authenticated was the murder of Pte Eric Bernard Hilton of the Sherwood Foresters. From the site of the Tarsao camp and hospital our journey took us to the delightful town of Tarsao itself, situated on Highway 323 with the Sai Yok Noi waterfalls in the towns centre. Tarsao is also the terminus for the part of the Railway still in use with the station called Nam Tok. After a visit to the Seven 11 store and street markets to stock up on snacks and nibbles for our five-day stay at Home Phu Toey.

Day Five

It is nice not to have to put your bags out and race for breakfast and the bus. Today we had the Buddhist Ceremony in the Weary Dunlop Park. This is an event that has taken place for a number of years and is to commemorate and remember the ex-prisoners of war that never returned home from the Railway and particularly to remember those that have passed in the year since our last visit. This year we remembered the members of the Quiet Lion group in Eric Roediger and Milton Fairclough ("Snow") who passed away in October 2016. This was followed by the obelisk ceremony and a memorial to Khun Kanit and Khun Oonjai without whom we would not have had Home Phu Toey.

We left HPT for the site of The Hintok Mountain camp, now an arboretum. This camp was the home of Dunlop Force and where Weary Dunlop performed his life saving medical skills with very little in the way of medicines and equipment. Fortunately, he had some very ingenious people in the camp with him that were able to build a water reticulation system that meant the cookhouse had running water and the men returning from work on the Railway could have a shower and get washed and feel a little like human beings again. This water system also allowed for the still to be built that provided distilled water with saline that was used to overcome the cholera epidemic that was rampant during the monsoon. This allowed 60 percent of cholera victims to survive the disease as compared to approximately 90 to 100 percent deaths at the start of the epidemic. It was from here that Jim Allpike carried the saline in glass demijohns to the Hintok River camp twice a day saving countless lives.
Next piece of the story is the visit to Sai Yok Yai waterfalls and National Park. A significant place in the Railway history, this is the site of a large camp which included a large contingent of indentured “romusha” which was credited with the construction of a huge embankment nearly two kilometres long to a substantial trestle bridge. This is still visible along with the concrete bridge abutments. There is the preserved remains of a Japanese cookhouse which is worth looking at.
Swimming in the waterfall is rather delightful as the streams are spring fed and the water is quite cool unlike the warm bath temperatures of most of the resort swimming pools. After everyone has had a chance to cool off we then boarded a houseboat for a leisurely trip down the Kwai Noi River accompanied by a long tailed boat for control. After an enjoyable lunch on the houseboat and the beautiful river scenery, we come to Hintok River camp. It was from Hintok River camp that the compressor cutting, the compressor embankment, the Hintok Cutting and the Three Tiered Bridge was completed.
Owing to the difficulty of building the Compressor embankment and the torrential monsoon rains that kept washing the base away, it was decided to build a trestle detour to the side of the embankment. This became known as the "Pack of Cards" bridge because it kept collapsing. This was the last section of the Railway to be completed to allow trains access to the full length of the Railway from Nong Pladuk to Thanbyuzayat. The last stop for today is the site of the Konyu River camp. This was the first camp that Dunlop Force was to call home on the Thailand Burma Railway. They were very fortunate that it was January 1943 and the weather was fine and dry, this enabled them to arrive here by motor transport. The next job was to erect a camp from attap and bamboo and on completion the group were moved to the Hintok Mountain (or Hintok Road camp) just as the wettest monsoon that Thailand experienced in the twentieth century, with sixteen thousand millimetres of rain recorded, set in. With that in mind we boarded our bus and returned to HPT for dinner and a good night’s sleep in air conditioned accommodation.

Day Six

Slept in until 7:00am, breakfast and a visit to the Hellfire Pass Museum, an institution of the Australian Federal Government, opened in 1998 by the Australian Prime Minister the Rt Hon John Howard. From the museum we headed into Kanchanaburi for the Cadets and Students to have some drill practice for the Wreath Laying Ceremony on ANZAC Day at the War Cemetery.
Lunch at the football, Thailand Tigers versus Singapore, burgers and sausages in rolls went down rather well with a cold drink. Thailand overcame Singapore to win a rather hard fought match, the temperature was a mild 42 degrees. On the bus again to return to HPT for dinner and a quiet night.

Day Seven

Today we had to leave relatively early to travel Highway 323 to the Kao Laem Dam, an impressive structure built by the Snowy Mountain Authority from Australia under the Colombo Plan to help countries after the Second World War to build new infrastructure. This dam inundates the Railway line from the Takanun camps for a distance of ninety kilometres to the Songkurai camps near to Three Pagodas Pass. Today we have lunch at the EGAT staff Club which is a set menu and one of the nicest Thai meals you could wish to have, our thanks go to the club manager and staff for making us so welcome.
Back onto the bus and head back on Highway 323, we pass through the town of Brankassi, site of the Brankassi camp, and a few kilometres further on we pass the site of Hindato camp which has a hot spring on the bank of a small river. This was a favourite place for Japanese engineers and soldiers who had the PoWs build a concrete pool for the use of Japanese staff.
Near Hellfire Pass Museum we turn onto the Hintok Road which takes us to the rest station on the Heritage Walk from Hintok Road back to the Hellfire Pass Museum, a distance of approximately 4 kilometres by the time you have climbed up and down steps, clambered over rocks, walked across trestle bridge sites and bomb craters. One and a half to two hours later, if you have had a look at all the works that were carried out by the POWs to complete this section of the Railway, said to be the most difficult on the entire railway. We have made sure we used the plentiful drinking water available. The men working on the rail trace left their camp at 4:00 am with one-pint bottle (600mls) to last until they got back to camp up to eighteen hours later. Arriving back at HPT at 4:30 pm it was time for a visit to the pool to relax, and prepare for our concert.
This evening after dinner we held our annual concert based on the 1943 Christmas Concert held at Hintok Mountain Camp called Fun With F.A.. The Railway was completed and the pressure had eased somewhat but there was work parties still required for maintenance work on the track and wood cutting for fuel for the engines. This concert was very well received not only by the prisoners but also by the Japanese and guards.
A guest in our midst this evening was a member of the New Zealand Navy, Commander Trevor Lesley, he was very well received by the Quiet Lions and it was nice to have an NZ component of ANZAC to join us.

Day Eight

We have a free day today, a chance to visit the Weary Dunlop Park incorporating the Weary Dunlop Pavilions and the Jack Chalker Gallery, both very worthwhile exhibits. There is also a display of a working prison camp hospital with an improvised orthopaedic bed with traction pulleys and a mechanism for raising and lowering sections of the bed independently. Various other exhibits were a dentist’s chair, an exercise bike along with pieces of equipment used for physiotherapy to recuperate injured limbs and bodies. These were made from bamboo.
There is also a working model of the still that was built at the Hintok Mountain camp along with other paraphernalia,intravenous drips made from sake bottles and stethoscope tubing and treatments for tropical ulcers. After the morning spent at Weary Dunlop Park, it was time for lunch and an afternoon at leisure taking in the delights of HPT and repacking bags for a very early morning departure to get to the Dawn Service at Hellfire Pass.
A small group travelled to Three Pagoda Pass to follow in the footsteps of F Force to the Songkurai camps accompanied by Ian Holding whose father, Wally Holding OAM was a member of the 2/4 Australian Machine Gun Battalion AIF and as a PoW was part of F Force. This intrepid group arrived back in time for the Welcome Reception at Weary Dunlop Park.
At 7:00pm we had the Light and Sound show followed by dinner with the Australian and New Zealand Ambassadors and the Quiet Lion Group. Dinner concluded at 10:00pm.

Day Nine

Early morning wake-up at 2:30am, bags dropped at the Lobby of HPT and on the bus for Hellfire Pass and the Dawn Service which is due to commence at 5:30am.
As the sky starts to lighten in the east, the dawn chorus of the birds starts, a call which breaks the silence in a beautiful way, as if there is more to come. At 5:30am, as the Catafalque Party mounts and the service begins, it is almost light enough to read the service books. Dawn Service in Hellfire Pass is a very moving and emotional Ceremony and everyone who attends finds themselves wiping a tear from heir eye. The haunting sounds of the Last Post and the Rouse echoing off the Cutting walls are something to behold. The lone Piper playing The Flowers of the Forest usually brings even the hardiest undone.
This year the Quiet Lion Students had a chance meeting with a group of Thai Military Cadets who were very keen to interact with our group, maybe something may eventuate in the future.
A quick Gunfire breakfast at the Hellfire Pass Museum and back to HPT,have breakfast and check bags onto the bus. This morning breakfast is served just inside the front entrance to HPT, as we have to go on to Kanchanaburi for the 11:00am Wreath Laying Ceremony. We say goodbye to the staff who have made us so welcome at Home Phu Toey over the last five days and with promises to be back again in 2018 with a newQuiet Lion Tour.
We arrived in Kanchanaburi at 9:45am and time for our Students to have one more drill practice before the main service where they will be presenting the Wreaths to be laid by visiting world dignitaries. It is a moving ceremony among the graves of those who perished on this cursed Railway, with a scrap of humanity and feeling for our fellow man, there really is no need for these graves to be here at all. We had come here to remember them and to honour them that they gave their lives sowe might be able to live in peace and harmony. Neil MacPherson gave a very moving address and received a standing ovation.

Thank you Neil. Our Students excelled themselves with the Wreath Laying as usual, a job that has been given to the Quiet Lion Tour. This was formerly done by members of the Thai Military and they would like to do it again. Thanks to our remarkable group of Cadets and Students who participated in The Quiet Lion Tour of 2017.

After the Ceremony was completed we adjourned to the Ban Rao Restaurant for a set menu lunch which is a really nice meal. Lunch completed it was time to start to relax as we had achieved what we had set out to do in telling the story of the Thailand- Burma Railway, the hardships and the atrocities and the mateship of fellow POWs.

The main object was to get the story of the selfless dedication of the Doctors and the medical staff, quite often with no training and just sheer determination to help the sick often ignoring the danger to their own health by just coming into contact with cholera and amoebic dysentery.

Next on the list was the swimming pool at Pung Waan Kanchanaburi Resort, a quiet dinner and retiring for the evening after the shock of a 2:30am wake up.

Day Ten

Today we return to Bangkok via Sampran Riverside Resort and Cultural Show. A side trip to Damnoern Saduak Floating Market. We leave from the pier, visit the market and return back to the pier without leaving the long tailed boats. Most enjoyed this style of retail therapy coming back with their market goods.

Sampran Riverside, formerly known as The Rose Garden certainly did not disappoint with an enormous range of dishes to delight the palate, there was deserts just waiting to be tried and fresh fruit, surely a gourmand’s paradise. This was followed by the Cultural Show showing traditional Thai village lifestyle and dances. Next stage was the journey to the Royal Benja Hotel, approximately thirty to forty kilometres away. Nothing like a relaxing drive through peak hour Bangkok traffic, after several "are we there yets" we finally crossed the Suphan Taksin Bridge over the Chao Prayo River. With two kilometers to go, it still takes an hour or more to reach our goal.

Owing to our group breaking up the following day we hold our final day dinner to wrap the tour up and to thank all that travelled on the Quiet Lion Tour for 2017. A special note of thanks needs to go to Esperance Senior High School and their contingent of Students, Staff and Carers, to Melville Rotary Club and their sponsorship to Melville Senior High School, to Geraldton RSL and local sponsors for their contribution to send Students and Carers, the Three Springs District RSL and sponsors for the Students and Carers, the Peel Health Campus-Mandurah RSL-Holding family group for sponsoring cadets and the Lions Club of Wagin for their sponsorship. Every Student that attended the Quiet Lion Tour of 2017 had local sponsorships and we, the committee and members, thank everyone that helped make the QLT 2017 such a success.

A very special thank you must go to the family of Mr Neil MacPherson OAM for the care and attention given to Neil and enabling him to be available to give the PoW Address at the Wreath Laying Ceremony and to be able to relate his time on the Railway as a PoW to the younger members of our group, and a big thanks to Neil for being with us once again.

Day Eleven

A free day for shopping and rounding up souvenirs and gifts to take to loved ones at home and to see some of the sights of Bangkok. The Students were looked after by their supervisors and had a successful day. Sydney travellers had to leave at 3:30pm for the airport and Melbourne and Brisbane travellers left at 8:00pm, which only left those going to Perth leaving at 4:30am the next morning.

Another successful tour completed and now we plan for 2018.

David Piesse

Tour Leader QLT 2017


In the Queen’s Birthday Honors announced on June 13 2016, Gordon Maitland Roberts, a member of the 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion in World War 11 and captive of the Japanese on the Burma Thailand Railway, was appointed as a member of the Order of Australia (OAM).

Gordon was born at Moora, Western Australia to a farming family on March 3, 1919 and was a “jack of all trades” working in rural areas of Western Australia prior to World War Two. He was one of a group of seventeen country boys from the town of Moora in WA who were members of the Militia in the 10th Light Horse and enlisted in the AIF on January 21, 1940, joining the all-Western Australian 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion. The Battalion sailed from Fremantle in a convoy including the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth 11, Aquitania, Mauritania, Isle de France and the Andes. The convoy called at Colombo and the battalion disembarked at Port Tewfik on the Suez Canal and later trained at Palestine and in Tel Aviv.

The battalion saw action in Syria and later at Mrouj, near Beirut in Lebanon.

Gordon Roberts was considered a leader of men and was promoted to Lance Corporal.

In February 1942 the battalion travelled on the Orcades via Durban, South Africa, to Oosthaven in South Sumatra. They disembarked at Batavia (Jakarta) before travelling by road to Bandoeng.

On 9th March 1942 the Dutch surrendered (including the Australians).

After nearly a year in Bandoeng the battalion went to Makasura before being shipped to Singapore with Dunlop Force under Lt Colonel Sir Edward Dunlop. In January 1943 Dunlop Force went by train on a five day journey in cramped steel rice wagons from Singapore to Non Pladuk in Thailand and then to the Konyu River Camp, the Hintok River Camp and the Hintok Road Camp.

Dunlop Force worked on the section of the Burma Thailand Railway between Konyu (Hellfire Pass) and Compressor Cuttings. Members of Dunlop Force suffered similarly to all prisoners on the Burma Thailand Railway with diseases, inhumane and brutal treatment, starvation, overwork, lack of basic needs and terrible conditions. At the completion of the railway Gordon Roberts went with his group to Tamuang in Thailand, followed by movements to various other areas on maintenance work and he remained in Thailand until the Victory in the Pacific.

When it was decided in 2002 to form the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, dedicated to ensure that the story of the “Railway” would not be forgotten, Gordon became an active supporter. The Association arranges an annual pilgrimage to Thailand for Anzac Day, the Quiet Lion Tour, which is named for Sir Edward (Weary) Dunlop. A feature of the tours is that a large group of High School children and service cadets are taken to Thailand.

During his war service and following his discharge from the Australian Army on January 31, 1946, Gordon Roberts was renowned for his “mateship”, resourcefulness and his compassion for his fellow prisoners. During captivity he spent countless hours foraging for little extras for his mates who were ill, on light rations and unpaid. He would stay with men in their dying hours maintaining the tradition of “nobody must die alone”. Even when the dreaded cholera epidemic raged he still nursed cholera patients without any regard for his own health.

He was a very robust man, raised in the country, and withstood the ravages of the prisoner of war experience to the point he often stood in for his mates who were too sick to work. A very notable aspect of the resourcefulness shown by Gordon Roberts was his ability to scrounge, barter and acquire by any dubious means food and medicine to help his mates. This ability may not be recognized generally but in the circumstances prevailing on the Burma Thailand Railway it was most important. One illustration of this is provided in the authenticated story involving close friend and POW “Snow Fairclough. “Snow” made his way most nights from the Hintok River prison camp to the nearby Kwai Noi River to set improvised fishing lines and on one occasion snared a large fish. He took it to Gordon Roberts with a view to them sharing the extra rations with his mates. Gordon instead went to the adjacent English officer’s camp where he was able to sell the fish to an English officer and received what was regarded as a fortune. He in turn used the proceeds to acquire salt and fresh vegetables from Thai villagers and various medicines from Thai River Traders. An interesting sidelight is that the English Officer was a Major named Swanton who transpired to be E.W. Swanton, the noted English cricket commentator. “Snow” Fairclough met Swanton post-war during a Test Match in Perth and Swanton recalled the exchange, adding that he got the fish for a “song” and out-bargained the Aussie POW.

After discharge on January 31, 1946 Gordon Roberts immediately returned to farming and agriculture and with many years of hard work and good business practice he created a thriving business breeding cattle and sheep.

It is of particular note that with Gordon Roberts’ passing, his friend Milton “Snow” Fairclough is the only remaining man of the seventeen from Moora who enlisted together and were all captured by the Japanese.

Gordon Roberts was deemed eminently suitable for recognition by the Australian Honors and Award system due to his Military service, his service to the ex Prisoner of War movement, his success in business, his community service and his encouragement and mentoring of youth.

Gordon’s medal is awarded posthumously.

2016 Tour – Neil Macpherson’s Address

ADDRESS BY NEIL MacPHERSON WX 16572 2/2ND PIONEERS AT THE 2016 ANZAC DAY WREATH LAYING CEREMONY AT KANCHANABURI WAR CEMETERY  Good Morning all, my name is Neil MacPherson. I worked on the Burma Railway for two years in Williams Force and ended up in a Japanese coal mine. We are here today at the Kanchanburi War Cemetery in Thailand to commemorate Anzac Day and to remember and honour those young Australians who died while prisoners of the Japanese. We must also pay homage to those who survived and returned home broken in body but not in spirit. We especially thank the government and the people of Thailand for their generous hospitality over the years here in Kanchanaburi and in other war time historical areas. In March 1942 with enemy control of both sea and air we Australians returning from the Middle East were diverted to Java. Outnumbered & overwhelmed, many were killed in the air defence of Java and in the battle at Llewiliang, a vital defence line for the city of Buitenzorg On the 8th March the Dutch Governor of Java surrendered the island and all its Forces to the Japanese, in order to save the island from further devastation. We suddenly found ourselves prisoners of a brutal regime that treated war prisoners as slave labour. In late October 1942 under Colonel John Williams, our Force of 800 which included as well as 2/2nd Pioneers, hundreds of sailors off the Australian and American Cruisers Perth and Houston started work on the Burma end of the Railway. As a 19 year old, to coin a phrase – “still wet behind the ears”, I became a railway worker, unprepared for the beatings and deaths of many of my mates.  Initially we were allocated the task of building embankments and digging cuttings through hills but in March 1943 along with Anderson Force under Colonel Anderson (who won a Victoria Cross in the fighting in Malaya); we started the demanding work of laying the sleepers and rails. During this work we moved along the railway over-nighting in filthy dilapidated camps previously occupied by Asian Labourers. These Asian labourers, with no organisation or medical support, died in their hundreds and were buried in collective unmarked graves.  During the construction of the railway it contained along its length and beyond hundreds of labour camps - all were bad, some worse than others - not one could be called good. Within 12 months of us starting work, diseases such as Cholera, Dysentery, Malaria, Berri Berri and leg ulcers, worsened by malnutrition and long hours of labour, would decimate our force. In September 1943 only 300 of Williams Force were still available for forced attendance at the Japanese organised celebrations to mark the joining of the two ends at Konkoita, 131 kilometres from our starting point at the base camp at Thanbyuzayat. We had left behind us lonely graves lining the length of the railway where so many prisoners had died - their graves marked only with little wooden crosses. Major Bruce Hunt, a noted West Australian surgeon and a most strict and efficient POW Camp Administrator in F. Force, had this to say about Australians on the railway:- I would say that….(The railway) was the most searching test of fundamental character and guts that I have ever known. That so many men…came through this test with their heads high and their records unblemished was something of which we…. may not be unreasonably proud.’ (Post war Major Hunt worked at Hollywood Repatriation Hospital in Western Australia and serviced Ex POWs). On completion of the railway construction all prisoners were evacuated from their jungle camps and brought to Tamarkan & Tamuang in Thailand. After being evacuated from Burma in January 1944 I spent six months here in Kanchanaburi in the shadow of the Kwai River Bridge while waiting for transfer to Singapore and then on to Japan to spend the last year of the war working in a coal mine. I would like to make a special mention of the High School Students and their teachers and carers who have made many sacrifices to travel on the Quiet Lion Tour with us, many worked hard to raise finance to pay their costs and supplement generous donations by a number of benefactors. These young people are honoured and privileged to play a part in the wreath laying ceremony today. Quiet Lion Tours have been bringing youngsters to Thailand since 1997. In contrast with previous addresses, this one has been shortened, partly to spare you good people but mainly because it is about as much as I could rustle up and about my limit on my feet with my “wonky knees” I do thank you for your attention and trust you will, after your experience here, return to your homes safely and there help keep alive the “Railway” story of mateship and courage.


Elizabeth Brennan receiving award On 13 May this year it was announced that Elizabeth Brennan, a valued member of the management Committee of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, had been presented with the WA Young Achiever Award for 2016. Elizabeth has had a long association with the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association having first attended a Quiet Lion Tour as a junior in a group sponsored by the Wongan Hills RSL. Elizabeth maintained a strong interest in the work of the Association for some years and in 2015 became a member of the Management Committee. A contributor to the West Australian newspaper on media strategic communications, Gemma Tognini, summed up some of Elizabeth’s attributes in an article titled “Unassuming young achievers put Gen-Y peers to shame” when she stated: “Take 29-year old Elizabeth Brennan from Wongan Hills who was named WA’s Young Achiever of the Year. This articulate, passionate, intelligent young woman is, quite frankly, a force to be reckoned with. She is president of the Australian Women in Agriculture and a member of the World Farmers’ Organisation Committee. She volunteers with Meals on Wheels. She also lived in PNG for two years as a volunteer with AusAID”. Gemma Tognini further commented at the conclusion of her article: “What I know (not from statistics) is that dozens of young men and women are bucking the Gen-Y trend and living courageous and generous lives. They understand the long game and are willing to play it. They’re prepared to forgo short-term gratification for long-term reward. They are working hard to build businesses and careers, rolling up their sleeves, learning from those who have gone before them and doing so with boundless good humour and a thick skin. Many are doing volunteering, too. These are the ones who aren’t demanding respect – they’re earning it. By doing real things, in the real world, with real outcomes. They’re fierce, and formidable and passionate about more than just themselves. They know that just because you shout about your passion and your drive does not prove anything other than you can shout. Talk, as they say, is so terribly cheap”. It is as if Gemma Tognini was describing Elizabeth when penning those words. Despite all of the interests Elizabeth pursues, she has found time to be actively involved in helping the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association achieve its objective in ensuring that the compelling story of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association is not forgotten. Congratulations Elizabeth. Eric Wilson APM OAM Chairman Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association

Letter to the Australian American Association – David Piesse


I have been involved with the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Inc since 1997, when my daughter, Amy, attended the Quiet Lion Tour that year as a sixteen year old. The trip was partly funded by my mother, a widow of an ex-PoW of the Japanese who was determined to send all of her grandchildren on the tour in memory of their grandfather WX4123 Pte C.R. Piesse, 2/3rd Australian Machine Gun Battalion, AIF, who was captured in Java when the Dutch surrendered on the 9th of March 1942. The members of Blackforce under the command of Brigadier Arthur Blackburn VC also were ordered to lay down their arms and became prisoners of war. This group included the 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion, the 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion, the 2/2nd Casualty Clearing Station under the command of Lt Col Edward Dunlop ( later Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop) and the 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery, Texas National Guard (the Lost Battalion).

The 131st Field Artillery group sailed on the USS Republic on the 21st of November 1941 and was diverted from the Philippines when Pearl Harbour was bombed on the 7th of November 1941 and landed on Java in the Dutch East Indies to reinforce the Australian and British troops already there. The Australians had come from the Middle East on the ship HMT Orcades heading for Australia but they were diverted to Java to reinforce the Allied troops already in the Netherlands East Indies.

After the battle of the Sunda Straight where the USS Houston and the HMAS Perth were sunk, most of the survivors came ashore on the local islands and Java, only to be rounded up by the Japanese or handed over to the Japanese by the Javanese for rewards and placed into captivity in prisoner of war camps. Some went to the Bicycle Camp near Batavia (including the 131st Field Artillery) and some went to Bandoeng in the Javanese Highlands (Including the 2/2 Casualty Clearing Station).

Those that were in Bicycle Camp were put into work parties, Anderson Force and Williams Force, and were sent in cargo ships as hold cargo to Burma via Singapore. These work parties were named after the officers commanding them. They arrived in Burma in July of 1942. The Allied prisoners of war interned at Bandoeng were placed into Dunlop Force, a work party sent to Thailand via Singapore in January, 1943, under the command of Lt Col Edward Dunlop. Lt Col Edward Dunlop had been the officer in charge of the 2/2 Casualty Clearing Station and on the arrival of a larger force at Bandoeng including Wing Commander Nichols (Royal Air Force) and Lieut. Colonel Van der Post (British Army), (both senior combatant officers) it was agreed that Dunlop would continue as camp commander. This was unusual as Dunlop was a surgeon, not a combatant officer. From Singapore Dunlop Force travelled for five days by train north to Ban Pong, Thailand. Fortunately there was road transport to take them on to Kanyu, the site of their first labour camp on the railway. Subsequently they occupied Hintok Mountain Camp and Hintok River Camps until the railway was completed in September 1943.

In 1985 a small group of Western Australian ex POWs conceived the idea of taking a trip to follow the route that the World War 11 Prisoners of the Japanese had taken, starting in Jakarta, Indonesia, then on to Bandeong in the Javanese highlands where most Dunlop Force were interned for approximately nine months. They then went on to Singapore and then to Bangkok Thailand. From here the plan was to find the railway by travelling up the Kwai Noi River until they recognised the bluff overlooking the river at Hintok River Camp, which they did. Sir Edward " Weary" Dunlop accompanied this tour. This was the beginning of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association and the Quiet Lion Tours to Thailand commemorating ANZAC Day.

The tour format that we use for our current tours began in 1997 which has incorporated school groups from all over Australia. To date we have taken approximately five hundred students and in excess of two thousand people on tour to Thailand. These groups are made up of people who have had relatives involved with the railway or who have an interest in Military History, some are visiting graves of relatives at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery others attend to pay respects and to learn the history of the railway. For many it is the opportunity to attend the moving occasion of the Dawn Service in Hellfire Pass before the memorial service at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery.

The objectives of the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association Inc. are: To perpetuate the memory of the privations and sacrifices of Australian and Allied prisoners of war and the selfless dedication of the medical personnel during the construction of the Burma Thailand Railway by informing current and future generations through all forms of education and particularly with the Annual Quiet Lion Tours to the Burma Thai Railway; the River Kwai; the Three Pagoda Pass; ANZAC Day at Hellfire Pass and Kanchanaburi War Cemetery.

The name of our tour comes from the Ambonese soldiers that stayed loyal to the Netherlands East Indies, many of whom were treated in the Allied General Hospital set up by Lt.Col Dunlop in Bandeong Java after the action they saw against the Japanese. They called Lt.Col Dunlop “Singa yang Diam” which in English translates to The Quiet Lion. This is the name chosen for our tours in honour of Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop who was selected to command Dunlop Force onto the construction of the railway between Konyu and Hintok in Thailand.

Any person with an interest in the history of events that took place during this period is welcome to apply to come on the tour. Our emphasis is to tell the story and keep it as a piece history that can be passed on and not forgotten, school groups are particularly welcomed. As history fades from living memory and is forgotten is a sure way of repeating it.

David Piesse. Tour Leader, Quiet Lion Tour to Thailand.


There have been many questions regarding American servicemen working on the Burma Thailand Railway whilst prisoners of the Japanese. In the main any such men were from the 2nd Battalion 131st Field Artillery and their story is one of the many on the Railway Story. (There are also the coincidences in regard to the 131st Field Artillery, the USS Houston and the HMAS PERTH survivors who became POWs). The following illustrates the connection and coincidences between the three elements. 131ST FIELD ARTILLERY The men of the 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery swam ashore from the Cruiser USS Houston when it was sunk. Only some survived 42 months of “hell" as prisoners of the Japanese. The 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery, 36th Division (Texas National Guard), was mobilized in November 1940. This Battalion was detached from the Division and sent to the Philippine Islands. The Unit sailed from the United States on November 21, 1941 aboard the Army Transport Ship, USS Republic and arrived at Pearl Harbor on the 28th of the same month. A day or two prior to reaching Hawaii a "black-out" and "radio silence" was announced and that an attack by the Japanese was expected at any time. After refuelling in Hawaii, the ship, accompanied by other ships, including the Chaumont, Hallmark, Holbrook, Admiral Halstead, Bloemfontein, Farmer and Gregg and the Cruiser USS Pensacola sailed south, and within a week Pearl Harbor was attacked by the Japanese. On December 7the Unit was informed of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The USS Republic had four 3-inch guns and one 5-inch gun (on the "fan-tail") mounted on her. The convoy made a short stop at Suva, Fiji Islands and then sailed on to Brisbane, Australia. This Unit was among the first American Troops ever to land on Australian soil. The Battalion spent Christmas 1941 in Brisbane but before New Year's Day it was again on the high seas, aboard the Dutch freighter Bloemfontein bound for the Island of Java in the Netherland East Indies, via Darwin, Australia. Coincidentally, the escort vessel for part of the journey was the Cruiser USS Houston. On January 11, 1942, 35 days after the outbreak of War with Japan, the Battalion was on Java, the only U. S. ground combat Unit to reach the Netherland East Indies, before the Dutch capitulated to the Japanese and the Battalion was captured by the Japanese. (They were considered “lost” because no one knew what happened to them until the war was nearly over. To the War Department they had simply disappeared). Prior to the capitulation the Battalion (less E Battery), used its artillery and 50 calibre machine guns (salvaged from wrecked B-17s) in support of an Australian "Pioneer Infantry" group (the 2/2nd Pioneers) which had arrived in Java just prior to the Japanese landing. With what the Aussies called "top-hole" artillery fire, they helped hold up the Japanese advance at Leuwilleng, near the Central Java City of Bandoeng. Of the 558 men and officers who landed on Java on January 11, 1942, 534 became prisoners of war of the Japanese. Within a few weeks, the Japanese had all of the American prisoners from the USS Houston and the 131st (less "E" Battery) together in the 10th Battalion Bicycle Camp, a former Dutch installation in the Batavia (Jakarta) Java Battery "E" remained in the Sourabaya area until moved to Nagasaki and other areas in Japan via Batavia and Singapore in November and December 1942. Thus, two Units of the American Armed Forces, consisting of 902 men, seemingly disappeared from the face of the earth, sacrificed in a clearly hopeless effort to save the Netherland East Indies from overwhelming numbers of the enemy. Now began an unbelievable string of events which, for some, would last three and one-half years and was to weld the "Phantoms" of the USS Houston (CA-30) and the 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery together in a bond closer than blood. This Army and Navy group of POWs suffered together through 42 months of humiliation, degradation, physical and mental torture, starvation and horrible tropical diseases, with no medication. The hardest part was watching friends die slowly, day by day, with the survivors often thinking, fleetingly, that maybe they were the "lucky ones." Of the 902 men taken Prisoner, 668 were sent to Burma and Thailand and worked on the "Death Railway" (of Bridge on the River Kwaii fame). Of the total, 163 men who died in Prisoner of War Camps, 133 died working on the railroad. After completion of the railroad, 236 of the men were disbursed to Japan and other Southeast Asian Countries to work in coal mines, shipyards, docks, etc. and a few remained at the "Bicycle Camp" in Java. Quite a few of the men were killed by American submarines while en-route to Singapore and Japan and more were killed by American bombers. When liberated, the men were scattered throughout locations in Southeast Asia: Java, Singapore, Burma, Thailand, French Indo China, Japan, China and Manchuria, to name most of them. USS HOUSTON A new heavy Cruiser (CA-30) was launched from Newport News, Virginia, on September 7, 1929, christened as USS HOUSTON. In 1940, she was in the Philippine Islands and when the U. S. Navy Department expected an attack on the fleet at any time the USS Houston was ordered to move from the Cavite Navy Yard (across the bay from Manila) to the Port of Ilo Ilo on the Island of Panay where she arrived on the 4th of December, four full days prior to the first air attacks on the City of Manila and the complete destruction of the Cavite Naval Installation. The ship left Ilo Ilo at 6:30 PM on Pearl Harbor day, just before a Japanese bomber attack on that Port. That same evening, the USS Houston was joined by the light cruiser, USS Boise, and on the following day by destroyers USS Stewart and USS Edwards, the seaplane tender, USS Langley and the fleet oilers, USS Pecos and USS Trinity. The convoy turned south, steamed toward Borneo and arrived at Balikpapan on the 15th of December. The next day, the USS Houston was ordered to proceed directly to Sourabaya, Java, to prepare for convoy escort duty between the Netherlands East Indies and Australia. The ship had become part of an allied fleet operating out of Java. On the 4th of February 1942, while searching for a Japanese force, consisting of three cruisers and 20 transports, they were attacked by 54 Japanese bombers. A direct hit knocked out the 8 inch gun turret, blew a 12 foot diameter hole in the main deck, killed 48 men and wounded 20 others. Although the vessel had lost one-third of its major firepower, it participated next in the "Battle of the Java Sea", where 12 Allied ships were lost. These were, Dutch: light cruisers Java & De Ruyter; destroyers Kortenaer and Witte de With; British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter, (of Graf Spee fame); destroyers: HMS Jupiter, HMS Encounter and HMS Electra; American destroyers: USS John C.Ford, USS Alden, USS Paul Jones and USS John D. Edwards. The only vessels to survive the "Battle of the Java Sea" were the Australian cruiser HMAS Perth and the USS Houston and on the night following the Java Sea Battle, the two ships attempted to sail to the south end of Java via the Sunda Strait. A Japanese fleet, consisting of an aircraft carrier, five cruisers, 11 destroyers and several PT boats was in the Strait, covering the landing of Japanese troops from 40 transports. When the HMAS Perth and the USS Houston reached the strait late that night (February 28, 1942) they found themselves surrounded by enemy ships. After putting up a tremendous battle, first the HMAS Perth and then the USS Houston were sent to the bottom. Only 368 of the total complement of 1011 men of the USS Houston managed to reach shore. The remaining 643 shipmates, including their skipper, Captain Rooks, went down with the ship. Within a few days, all the survivors became prisoners of the Japanese. The Lost Battalion remains the "Most Decorated Unit" in Texas of any War and USS Houston CA-30, is the "Most Decorated" vessel of its class in the U. S. Fleet. Each year since 1945, the survivors of the POW "hell" along with their families, meet in August to keep their Bond of Brotherhood inviolate and to remember and pay honour to the 163 who died in Prison Camps and the 504 who have died since liberation and the 646 who died in action. The loss of HMAS Perth, 1 March 1942 HMAS PERTH HMAS Perth, a light cruiser of 6,830 tons, was commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS Amphion on 15 June 1936 and later purchased by the Australian Government. She was commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) on 29 June 1939. She carried a complement of 681. Her early war service was in the Caribbean and the Pacific and she did not reach Australia until 31 March 1940. Until November 1940, the ship was engaged on patrol and escort duties in Australian waters. She then departed for the Mediterranean where she played a minor part in the battle of Matapan. She was involved in the evacuations of Crete and Greece in April and May 1941, in the course of which she was badly damaged by bombing. After repairs, the cruiser was engaged in operations off the coast of Syria before proceeding to Australia for an extended refit. She arrived in Sydney on 12 August. While the ship was refitting, Captain H. M. L. Waller, DSO and bar, RAN, took command on 24 October 1941. After completion of her refit, Perth operated off eastern Australia on patrol and escort work, visiting New Caledonia and New Guinea. On 14 February 1942 Perth sailed for the Netherlands East Indies, arriving at Batavia (now Jakarta) on 24 February, where she was attacked by Japanese aircraft that day and the next without sustaining any damage. The Perth sailed for Surabaya on 25 February, in company with four Royal Navy ships. On 26 February the ship departed Surabaya in company with the Dutch light cruisers De Ruyter and Java, the heavy cruisers USS Houston and HMS Exeter, and two Dutch, three British and four US destroyers. The squadron, under the command of the Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman, proceeded along the north coast of Madura Island, searching for a Japanese invasion convoy. Admiral Doorman received information that the Japanese forces had been sighted to the north and he steamed to intercept. In the ensuing battle of the Java Sea, fought over the night of 27-28 February the Allied force was soundly defeated by a Japanese force which was able to exploit its superiority over the four-nation Allied force in terms of long-range gunnery, torpedoes, night fighting, the freshness of its crews, and its homogeneity. The Dutch cruisers were sunk and Exeter badly damaged, while most of the destroyers were sunk or withdrew as their torpedoes were exhausted. Perth and Houston were able to break off the action with the Japanese and sailed to Tandjung Priok, where they refuelled. Orders were received for the cruisers to sail through the Sunda Strait for Tjilitjap on Java's south coast. They sailed at 7.00 pm on 28 February and set a course to the west for the Strait, Perth leading, with Houston five cables astern. At 11.06 a vessel was sighted at about five miles range, close to St Nicholas Point. When challenged she proved to be a Japanese destroyer and was immediately engaged. The two cruisers had met the Japanese invasion force assigned to western Java. Shortly afterwards, other destroyers were sighted to the north and the armament shifted to divided control to allow more than one target to be engaged. Despite this, the enemy destroyers attacked from all directions during the action; it was impossible to engage all targets simultaneously, and so some were able to close to short range. Nevertheless, Perth was to suffer only superficial damage in this phase of the action. At about midnight it was reported that the cruiser had little ammunition left, so Captain Waller decided to attempt to force a passage through Sunda Strait. He ordered full speed and turned the ship south for Toppers Island. Perth had barely steadied on her new course when a torpedo struck her in the starboard side. The captain ordered the crew to prepare to abandon ship. A few moments later, another torpedo struck just forward of the first hit and Captain Waller gave the order to abandon ship. After five or ten minutes, a third hit torpedo struck well aft on the starboard side, followed shortly after by another on the port. Perth, which had been heeling to starboard, righted herself, then heeled to port and sank at about 12.25 am on 1 March. Houston, still fighting but ablaze, was also hit by torpedoes and sank shortly afterwards. Perth's crew abandoned ship between the second and third torpedoes, but it is doubtful if any boats were successfully launched, although many rafts and Carley floats were. During the abandon ship operation the Perth was under fire from many destroyers at close range and many hits were sustained and casualties caused. Many were killed or wounded in the water by the explosion of the last two torpedoes and by shells exploding in the water. Of the Perth's company of 686, which included four civilian canteen staff and six RAAF personnel for operating and servicing her aircraft, only 218 (including one civilian and two RAAF) were eventually repatriated; the remainder were killed during, or soon after, the action, or died as prisoners of war. Captain Waller was lost with the ship.


Milton Thomas Fairclough, a survivor of the Burma Thailand Railway and a member of 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion was awarded an OAM in the Honours List announced on Australia Say this year. It was recognized that Snow (as he is universally referred to), has served the Australian Community by his outstanding achievements and contributions as a soldier (in particular as a prisoner of the Japanese) in time of war and as a concerned citizen in time of peace. He has assisted significantly in perpetuating the memory of the privations and sacrifices of Australian Military personnel and the selfless dedication of the medical personnel during the construction of the Burma Thailand Railway in World War Two. He has also dedicated himself to service to the community since surviving World War Two and his incarceration with service and support of returned Australian prisoners of war of the Japanese, and participation in youth and community affairs. Snow was born at Perth on August 28, 1920, and grew up on a farm in Moora; he was a “jack of all trades” working in rural areas of Western Australia prior to World War Two. He was with a group of country boys who were members of the Militia in the 10th Light Horse and enlisted in the AIF on June 19, 1940, joining the 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion which was mainly raised in Western Australian. In 1940 the battalion sailed from Fremantle on the Isle de France in a convoy with the Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth 11, Aquitania, Mauritania, Isle de France and the Andes. The convoy called at Colombo and the battalion disembarked at Port Tewfik on the Suez Canal and later trained at Palestine and in Tel Aviv. The battalion saw action in Syria and later at Mrouj, near Beirut in Lebanon. In February 1942 the battalion traveled on the troop ship RMS Orcades via Durban, South Africa, to Oosthaven in South Sumatra. They disembarked at Batavia (Jakarta) before traveling by road to Bandoeng. On 9th March 1942 the Dutch surrendered (including the Australians). After nearly a year in Bandoeng the battalion went to Makasura before being shipped to Changi Prison on Singapore with Dunlop Force under Lt Colonel Edward Dunlop. In January 1943 Dunlop Force went by train on a five day journey in cramped steal rice wagons from Singapore to Non Pladuk in Thailand and then to the Konyu River Camp, the Hintok River Camp and the Hintok Road Camp. Dunlop Force worked on the section of the Burma Thailand Railway between Konyu (Hellfire Pass) and Compressor Cuttings. Members of Dunlop Force suffered similarly to all prisoners on the Burma Thailand Railway with diseases, inhumane and brutal treatment, starvation, overwork, lack of basic needs and terrible conditions. By the completion of the railway Milton Furlough’s health was bad and when his group went to Tamuang where men were selected for virtual “slave” work in Japan he was unfit and was admitted to the Nakon Pathom Hospital. He was then on maintenance work and remained in Thailand until the Victory in the Pacific. After discharge on January 31, 1946 Milton Fairclough immediately commenced an active association with supporters of returned Australian Prisoners of War of the Japanese and participating in youth and community affairs. Milton “Snow” Fairclough has returned to Thailand on twelve occasions as a mentor to students sourced from High Schools and sponsored by the Burma Thailand Burma Railway Memorial Association, the Extremely Disabled War Veterans Association, various Community Service Clubs and the Retired Prisoners of War Association of Western Australia on Quiet Lion Tours. As with most ex Prisoners of War, Milton Fairclough confined any discussions and recollections of the Prison of War experience to fellow ex PoWs, usually in the confines of RSL clubs, but when it was decided in 2002 to form the Burma Thailand Railway Memorial Association, dedicated to ensure that the story of the “Railway” would not be forgotten, he became an active member. The Association arranges an annual pilgrimage to Thailand for Anzac Day, the Quiet Lion Tour, which is named for Sir Edward (Weary) Dunlop. A feature of the tours is that a large group of High School children and service cadets are taken to Thailand. His Thailand visits had commenced prior to the formation of the Association. Milton “Snow” Fairclough is renowned for his “mateship”, resourcefulness and his compassion for his fellow prisoners. During captivity he spent countless hours foraging for little extras for his mates who were ill, on light rations and unpaid. He would stay with men in their dying hours maintaining the tradition of “nobody must die alone”. Even when the dreaded cholera epidemic raged he still nursed cholera patients without any regard for his own health. In post war years he has regularly visited his mates when they are ill or close to death. He has played a large part in the activities of the 2/3rd Battalion Association. “Snow” was invested with his medal by Governor Kerry Sanderson in a ceremony at Government House in March this year.

Tour report 2016

TOUR REPORT QUIET LION TOUR 2016 Friday April 15th 2016 saw a group of people congregating at the check-in desk at Perth International Airport, mostly strangers to each other. The same was happening at Brisbane International Airport, Melbourne International Airport and Sydney International Airport as well. We have become an organisation for the whole of Australia not just Western Australia as was in the past. We are doing all travel arrangements for travelers coming from all over Australia as well as flights being met to assemble our group together. This creates cohesion into the Quiet Lion Group rather than an "us and them". We also accommodate ”land content only" for those who join the tour whilst in Thailand or are arriving from other overseas destinations. As take-off time was approaching it was noticed that our group was starting to intermingle and were helping each other with documents and getting through the different stages that go with international travel, a lot for the first time. Up and away, we left Perth with our full compliment as did the flights from the other airports on the eastern seaboard and later in the evening we had ourselves AT the Quiet Lion Tour for 2016, assembled and ready to get into the story of the Thai Burma Railway. Day two had to get everyone into the habit of early wake up calls so we can leave on time. No wake up call, panic, are people still in bed, fortunately most had set an alarm. No Panic. Made us aware to check that wake up calls had been ordered before going to bed, not the next morning. Left around fifteen minutes late to go to the Summer Palace at Bang-Pa In, as per usual it was hot and gave our group a taste of Thailand weather. Next on to Ayutthaya to the United Nations declared world heritage area of the ancient capital of Thailand that was invaded in 1767ad (or 2559be) as we were told, being the Thai calendar year. Owing to a change in approach to hasten our visit, we lost time and had to curtail our next stop to a few minutes. Mental note to self, go back to previous arrangements. Lunch proved to be a great success on a new ferry down the Chayo Phraya River into Bangkok which took approximately three hours and gave everyone a chance to get to know one another and to talk among them about what their expectations of the trip would be. Arrived back at Royal Benja Hotel in time for those that had missed the retail therapy component of the day. Unaccompanied students and the Geraldton group were taken to Terminal 21 shopping complex for an evening’s outing. Day three started without a wakeup call as well, no problems, day went very well with a visit to the Teak Factory, an initiative by the Queen of Thailand to train Thai artisans in the art of wood carving and furniture making. From here we went to the Palm Sugar Factory to see the traditional way of making Coconut Palm Sugar and to stock up on palm sugar for the morning coffee. The Damnoen Saduak floating market was well received arriving after a tour of the klongs and a chance to make purchases from the long-tail boats in which we were traveling. A sumptuous lunch was put on at the Sampran Riverside Resort, formerly the Rose Garden Resort, followed by the Thai Elephant and cultural show. We arrived back in Bangkok around 5:30pm with time to get cleaned up for dinner with our guests, Khun Tang Sitipong and her parents, (they are the daughter and granddaughter of Khun Kanit and Khun Oonjai Wanachote). The Wanachote family are keen to keep contact with the Quiet Lion Group as we had a very long association with the Wanachote family through Home Phu Toey. Day four saw wake up calls functioning with everyone eager to begin the official start of the Railway Story, we had been spoiled by the Bangkok traffic on the previous days as it was the end of the Thai New Year or Sonkran Festival. Today was the start of the working week and the traffic was horrendous, finally arrived at Nakom Pathom, the site of the big hospital camp that was constructed after the railway was completed. It was here that Weary Dunlop and Albert Coates along with other doctors from the railway and dedicated medical staff did so much work to assist the men that came down from the camps along the track to recover some of their health and get attention for a multitude of illnesses that plagued them during the construction period. Most that came here were in very poor condition, food was just adequate but being closer to Bangkok they were able to get supplies from the "V" organization, a group of Thais and expat English and Dutch that had been interned for the duration of the war but still had contact to the outside. A main conduit for this activity was Boon Pong and his Daughter. Next on the list was Nong Pladuk station on the railway line from Bangkok to the southern states of Thailand and eventually to Singapore, this is the 0 kilometre point of the railway to Thanbyuzayat on the Thailand side of the border. Thanbyuzayat is the 0 kilometre point for those that started in Burma. A large camp, mainly British, was at Nong Pladuk along with workshops, foundries and oil refineries. Not far from Nong Pladuk is the town of Ban Pong. (The railway station where POWs alighted from the trains that had brought them up from Singapore). The "lucky few" which arrived here was taken by truck to their areas of work. The remainder was force marched at about twenty-five miles per day until they reached their destination up to three hundred kilometres away. As we get closer to Kanchanaburi, we stop at Tamuang, a large camp area that is now mostly market gardens that supply fresh vegetables to the local market in Kanchanaburi. Most of the POWs that came to work on the railway travelled through here on the way up the line and most definitely on their return. Those returning to Singapore and some of the Japan Parties were selected from here. The camp was not a work camp and was mainly for administration, the discipline was strict but the rations were considerably better than up the line. Those suffering with amoebic dysentery, tropical ulcers, and most of the debilitating disease that were hard to treat were sent from here on to the hospital camp at Nakom Pathom. After Tamuang we travel through the city of Tamuang and Kanchanaburi to Tamarkan, the site of the Bridge over the River Kwai, and to lunch at Tida Loa's Restaurant overlooking the bridge, after lunch we had time to have a look over the bridge and for those who needed to change currency, after a quick look at the market it was time to go to the Thailand Burma Railway Centre and the Kanchanaburi War Cemetery. By this time the day had got into the low forties and was starting to get uncomfortable so after the TBRC it was by unanimous decision that we head for Pung-Waan Kanchanaburi Resort and the swimming pool. We would pick up the end of the day in the morning when it was not so hot. After the welcome dinner and karaoke we all retired for the night. Day five saw us picking up where we had left off the previous evening after a group photo at the front of Pung-Waan Resort, onto the buses and visited Chungkai War Cemetery and landing on the Kwai Noi River after the cemetery we went to Chungkai Cutting and embankment which was built from the Chungkai Camp. Chungkai was also a "Base Hospital" that was used before the facility at Nakom Pathom was built, a lot of amputations took place in the Chungkai Hospital. Skipped JEATH Museum and went straight to TBRC to wait for the train from Kanchanaburi over the Wampo Viaduct. The train was due at 10:40am, arrived Thai time around 11:00am. Quiet Lions had a carriage to themselves and the track has been re-laid, re-ballasted and new heavy gauge rails, it was a very pleasant ride, no bumps or square wheels. After crossing the Viaduct and alighting at Wampo Station we then went back to Tam Krasae Station where lunch was served at one of our favorite stops, the Jungle Training Centre, and watched the train return on its journey back to Bangkok. Everyone that participated in this exercise certainly had a good look at the bridge and all agreed that the construction was a great feat in engineering and allaying fears of precarious positions. It was a very positive manoeuvre. From lunch we were back on the busses to the site of the Tarsao Hospital camps, another "base" hospital which the extremely sick and injured were sent from camps further north. The Pung-Waan River Kwai Resort now occupies this location and the different uses are incomparable, from death and disease and starvation to a luxury resort it was a place of desperation. A short bus trip took us to the town of Tarsao, the terminus of the railway at the station of Nam Tok. Off the end of the railway stands a Mitsubishi C56 locomotive which ran on the railway during the war and after with the State Railways of Siam until 1956. Above the engine is the site of the Tonchan South POW camp from which was built a long trestle bridge across the front of the Sai Yok Noi Waterfall. Owing to the lack of rain the stream and waterfall was not running. The next stop was across the road at the 7 Eleven store to buy supplies for our home for the next five days at Home Phu Toey Resort, what a relief to be able to stay here without having to check out. Day six saw us on the road again to Takanun, and the Khao Laem Dam and Lake Vajalongkorn built by the Snowy Mountain Authority under the Columbo Plan in the 1980's. First stop is Wat Takanun and a chance to climb up to the Buddha Image at the top of a limestone Kaste to take in the lay of the Kwai Noi Valley and the Takanun POW camps. The position of the railway is visible from here until it passes under the dam wall. From here you also overlook the town of Thong Pha Phum, a regional centre in Kanchanaburi Province. From the temple complex we went to the Khao Laem Dam. We have been informed that our group is the only ones that have access to the dam itself and we are guests of EGAT. A set menu lunch was served at the staff social club which was very well received; a chance was taken to be able to enjoy the cool breeze that comes off the dam. Lunch finished we headed back past the camp sites of Brankassi and Hindato where there is a deviation to take the railway past the Hindat Hot Springs. We arrived at the rest station on the Hintok road at 2:00pm, gave everyone water and electrolyte and after a short briefing everyone headed to the Hintok Cutting and the site of the Three Tier Bridge. After an address at the bridge site we headed down the stairs to the bridge footings and up onto the “seven metre” bank and through to Hellfire Pass Museum. It was hot but the route of the heritage track meant the sun was nearly always behind the hill and we were in shade most of the way. Last ones got through between 4:00 and 4:15 pm which meant it was time to hit the pool. Sleep-in on day seven, call at 6:45am, time for a leisurely breakfast and walk up to Weary Dunlop Park for the Buddhist Ceremony. This is a very pleasant and meaningful ceremony conducted by the monks from a nearby temple. The Ceremony that is performed is the ceremony to release the spirits of those who have passed away in the last twelve months. The next item for the morning is the Obelisk to commemorate the Doctors and medical staff that did so much to keep up the spirits and health of the men working on the line and defending them from being sent out to work when they were incapable. This is followed by the Memorial to Khun Kanit and Khun Oonjai Wanachote, our dear friends who looked after us at Home Phu Toey all the years we have been staying here. We also tell of the first meeting of the ex-prisoners of war and Kanit and Oonjai Wanachote on the River Kwai Noi including Sir Edward Weary Dunlop and lasting connection with Home Phu Toey. After the Buddhist Ceremony, the Obelisk Ceremony and the Kanit and Oonjai Memorial, we board the busses to visit the site of the Hintok Road Camp, now an arboretum. The attempt to place an obelisk here in memory of the doctors and medical staff was thwarted by Thai “red tape”. Hintok Mountain Camp is also known as Hintok Road camp, the road that runs through the camp was an elephant track to Burma which was open to vehicular traffic during the dry season. Dunlop Force walked to here from the Konyu River camp and started on the railway as soon as they arrived, the camp was built in spare time and after work on the railway, the accommodation was mainly defective R D Tents often with only a single fly, they were not water proof and when the monsoon set in it rained for one hundred and eight days straight, everything was wet and had no chance of drying out. Sickness and disease started to spread, any semblance of clothing soon disintegrated leaving only slouch hats and "g" strings, boots had rotted away before they had left Java. During this big wet, the railway work went on for ninety-three days and with the wet came cholera, at first nearly everyone that got cholera died in a matter of hours until the medics came up with replacing the electrolytes by intravenous injection. Major Alan Woods had built a water reticulation system by damming the stream above the camp and using bamboo he had supplied running water to the cook house. He broached into this system near the kitchen and built a still capable of producing one hundred and twenty litres of saline a day thus saving the lives of more than sixty percent of cholera victims. Back on the busses and we head for Sai Yok Yai National Park to see the POW camps and the Japanese camp area. There is a huge embankment and bridge footings that were built by the Romusha (forced labour). After a swim and a paddle in the coldest water we encounter in Thailand we then board Houseboats and travel down the Kwai Noi River with lunch provided. The houseboat trip was very well received and enjoyed by all, we alighted at the Hintok River camp and after a short talk we moved onto Konyu River camp and then returned to Home Phu Toey for dinner and bed. Day eight after another sleep in and a photo we headed for Thadan where a road bridge was built after the completion of the railway, as the original structure had been washed away during the extreme monsoon. The site of the camp is now an Elephant Park where you can hire elephants for transportation. From here we travel to Lat Ya, which is the site of the Temple Camp also known as Rajah camp (a corruption of the words Lat Ya). This camp was a transit stop as the road to Burma followed this route. The Shinto Peace Park is funded from Japan as atonement for the atrocities that took place during World War 2, on behalf of the Japanese nation. Lunch taken afloat on the two rivers - (Kwai Noi and the Kwai Yai). On the Kwai Noi we traveled as far as Khao Pun, the mountain which the Chungkai Cutting and embankment are built on and passed the landing of the Chungkai Hospital and cemetery. As we returned down the river and came into the Kwai Yai the two rivers can be seen running side by side, one brown the other blue. We were able to come up the Kwai Yai and travel under the "Bridge over the River Kwai " and see the abutment of the timber bridge that was built in conjunction with the steel bridge. On the way back down to the landing we pass e new style Buddhist Temple and Stupa which contains the Ashes of the last Head Abbot of Thailand that was born in Kanchanaburi. We left the lunch cruise at the JEATH landing for a visit before heading back to Home Phu Toey for our Concert Night. Concert Nights just seem to get better and better as time goes on. Every year is absolutely amazing, and becoming more professional. Thanks to all of those that participated and gave us all a night to remember. Day nine and we visited Hellfire Pass Museum to give everybody a chance to go through the exhibition and have time to take in all they have to offer without being pushed for time. Next item on the itinerary was a session for the students to practice their marching and presentation of wreaths to be laid on ANZAC Day at Kanchanaburi War Cemetery. Our students went reasonably well at this exercise with some more polish they will be good on the day. Discovered “After Dawn” Coffee Shop which served espresso coffee made with real milk a nice little bonus for the connoisseurs of good coffee. The main reason for coming to Kanchanaburi was the ANZAC Cup AFL Football match played between the Thailand Tigers and the Malaysian Warriors. The Malaysian Warriors ran out winners after being the runners up in the home and away season. The afternoon was very enjoyable and particularly the hamburgers, fries, pizzas, hot dogs, steak sandwiches, pies and sausage rolls went very well thanks to Tenderloins Steakhouse from Bangkok and a sponsor of the Thailand Tigers AFLFC. We had a pleasant trip back to Home Phu Toey with a short stop at the Tarsao 7 Eleven who by this stage almost knew the Quiet Lions by name. Dinner was a quiet affair and all turned in for the night. Day ten was our free day for most however those who took the optional trip to Three Pagodas Pass on the Thailand Burma border. Eighteen people took advantage of this option led by Ian Holding with his knowledge of F Force and the movements of those who worked on the northern part of the railway and the site of Dr Bruce Hunt's hospital at the Songkurai camps. Mention should also be made of Neil MacPherson OAM who served further north again over the border in Burma itself, starting at Thanbyuzayat and coming right to the border at Changaraya. The rest remained at Home Phu Toey to have to visit the Weary Dunlop Park and Museum and the other exhibits in the park. They saw replicas of the equipment made from bamboo; a dentist chair, an orthopaedic bed with pulley system for raising and lowering limbs and for traction, various physiotherapy equipment that was used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from tropical ulcers, amputations, broken limbs and various other ailments that required this treatment. At 5:00pm in Weary Dunlop Park there was a press conference where Neil MacPherson OAM and Harold Martin, both ex-POWs on the Thailand Burma Railway were interviewed by press from SE Asia and Australia. This ended at 5:30pm. The Quiet Lions Group then joined other invited Guests for a reception followed by the light and sound show in which they managed to set the mountain side ablaze. A few anxious moments and all were back on track. Dinner was served on the lawn in company of the invited guests but being ANZAC Eve most took the advantage of leaving early to get ready for an early start and pack bags for an early check out before we head to Hellfire Pass for the Dawn Service. Day eleven, ANZAC Day, wakeup call at 2:15am, bags at the lobby and on the bus by 2:45am and leave for Hellfire Pass. The service started at 5:30am and was very well and ended at 6:15am. As daylight broke over the gathering the birds became very noticeable and the light spread through the pass, it was a moving experience. We then headed back to the car park at Hellfire Pass for a gunfire breakfast and back to Home Phu Toey for breakfast and place luggage onto busses. We said goodbye to Home Phu Toey as we headed to Kanchanaburi for the Wreath Laying Ceremony at 11:00am. Arrived in time for the students have some more practice at the wreath laying before the service began. With the Service in full swing, it came to the wreath laying which started well but in no time gremlins stared to appear but the students laying wreaths stepped up and laid the wreaths as if nothing had happened, no-one noticed the programme change and the students are to be congratulated for their initiative. After the Service, we left the Cemetery and walked to the Baan Rao Restaurant for a very enjoyable lunch and all you could eat ice cream which delayed our departure for Bangkok slightly. Our trip back to Bangkok and the Royal Benja Hotel was a rather quiet affair as everyone had had a big day and realised that this was nearly the end of the Quiet Lion Tour 2016. Our final dinner was held in the dining room at the Royal Benja. It was time to thank our tour guides, Ake and Alex, our Thai agents at Pacific Horizon, Kaye and Vivatchai, and our drivers and crew. Neil MacPherson received a very warm thank you for his part in the tour as did Alan MacPherson who helped Neil throughout the tour. Ian Holding had done a fantastic job organising the tour and Krishna Vanderweide for making sure there were no loose ends and for being mum to the unattached girls and boys. We must say a big thank you to allow those who stepped up during the tour and took on roles that were necessary for the smooth running, Vicky Vincent became the concert organizer and Michael Vincent was the "sheepdog" that made sure everyone was on the bus but also on the right bus. We also need to thank our regular supporters from Esperance Senior High School, Miles Senior High School (Queensland), Christina and Kerry Ross with the Geraldton contingent, Carnamah and Three Springs RSL for their input, Melville Rotary Club for the sponsorship of the Melville Senior High School students, Mt Lawley Senior High School, the Lions Club of Wagin, Mandurah RSL and Ramsay Medical Group (Hollywood Hospital). All of the students had outside sponsorship and BTRMA support to help them attend the Quiet Lion Tour, thanks to all who helped in this way. Day twelve was a day for pure retail therapy, lookout MBK we are coming, all unaccompanied students were supervised by appointed carers, lots of souvenirs and clothes were purchased and last minute gifts to take home were acquired and the tour slowly wound down. Back to the Benja for dinner and onto the busses to go to Suvanaphumi Airport to catch our respective planes to home. Thank you everyone for your input into a wonderful QLT 2016. David Piesse, Tour Leader,